Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) related complications in surgical patients

  1. Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy1,*,
  2. Rahul Koti1,
  3. Peter Wilson2,
  4. Brian R Davidson1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Wounds Group

Published Online: 19 AUG 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 1 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010268.pub2


How to Cite

Gurusamy KS, Koti R, Wilson P, Davidson BR. Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) related complications in surgical patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD010268. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010268.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, Department of Surgery, London, UK

  2. 2

    University College London Hospitals, Department of Microbiology & Virology, London, UK

*Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Department of Surgery, Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital,, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK. kurinchi2k@hotmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 19 AUG 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Carsenti-Etesse 1999 {published data only}
  • Carsenti-Etesse H, Doyon F, Desplaces N, Gagey O, Tancrède C, Pradier C, et al. Epidemiology of bacterial infection during management of open leg fractures. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 1999;18(5):315-23.
Goldstein 2009 {published data only}
  • Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Merriam CV, Abramson MA. Infection after elective colorectal surgery: bacteriological analysis of failures in a randomized trial of cefotetan vs. ertapenem prophylaxis. Surgical Infections 2009;10(2):111-8.
Hashizume 2004 {published data only}
  • Hashizume T, Nishizawa R, Aizawa S, Yamaya M, Kobori H, Asakura Y, et al. Clinical study of using prophylactic antibiotics and chemical preparation for elective operation of colorectal cancer. Japanese Journal of Gastroenterological Surgery 2004;37(4):375-83.
Ishibashi 2009 {published data only}
  • Ishibashi K, Kuwabara K, Ishiguro T, Ohsawa T, Okada N, Miyazaki T, et al. Short-term intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis in combination with preoperative oral antibiotics on surgical site infection and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in elective colon cancer surgery: results of a prospective randomized trial. Surgery Today 2009;39(12):1032-9.
Ishida 2001 {published data only}
  • Ishida H, Yokoyama M, Nakada H, Inokuma S, Hashimoto D. Impact of oral antimicrobial prophylaxis on surgical site infection and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection after elective colorectal surgery. Results of a prospective randomized trial. Surgery Today 2001;31(11):979-83.
Kaiser 1987 {published data only}
  • Kaiser AB, Petracek MR, Lea JW, Kernodle DS, Roach AC, Alford WC, et al. Efficacy of cefazolin, cefamandole, and gentamicin as prophylactic agents in cardiac surgery. Results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial in 1030 patients. Annals of Surgery 1987;206(6):791-7.
Morimoto 2002 {published data only}
  • Morimoto K, Koh M, Kinoshita H. Levofloxacin for prophylaxis in breast cancer surgery compared with ofloxacin. Japanese Journal of Antibiotics 2002;55(6):866-74.
Saadeddin 2005 {published data only}
Saveli 2011 {published data only}
  • Saveli CC, Morgan SJ, Belknap RW, Ross E, Stahel PF, Chaus GW, et al. The role of antibiotics in open fractures revisited: Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and susceptibility profile. Surgical infections 2011;12(S1):S38-9.
Shime 2007 {published data only}
  • Shime N, Kato Y, Kosaka T, Kokufu T, Yamagishi M, Fujita N. Glycopeptide pharmacokinetics in current paediatric cardiac surgery practice. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 2007;32(4):577-81.
Stone 2010 {published data only}
  • Stone P, Campbell J, AbuRahma A, Safley L, Emmett M, Asmita M. Vascular surgical antibiotic prophylaxis study (VSAPS). Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2010;44(7):521-8.
  • Stone PA, AbuRahma AF. Vascular surgical antibiotic prophylactic study (VSAPS). Journal of Vascular Surgery 2009;50(6):1533.
Vuorisalo 1998 {published data only}
  • Vuorisalo S, Pokela R, Syrjala H. Comparison of vancomycin and cefuroxime for infection prophylaxis in coronary artery bypass surgery. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1998;19(4):234-9.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Al-Mukhtar 2009 {published data only}
  • Al-Mukhtar A, Wong VK, Malik HZ, Abu-Hilal M, Denton M, Wilcox M, et al. A simple prophylaxis regimen for MRSA: its impact on the incidence of infection in patients undergoing liver resection. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 2009;91(1):35-8.
Bluhm 1984 {published data only}
  • Bluhm G, Jacobson B, Julander I, Levander-Lindgren M, Olin C. Antibiotic prophylaxis in pacemaker surgery--a prospective study. Scandinavian Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 1984;18(3):227-34.
Cann 1988 {published data only}
  • Cann KJ, Watkins RM, George C, Payne-James J, Crawfurd E, Rogers TR. A trial of mezlocillin versus cefuroxime with or without metronidazole for the prevention of wound sepsis after biliary and gastrointestinal surgery. Journal of Hospital Infection 1988;12(3):207-14.
Dhadwal 2007 {published data only}
  • Dhadwal K, Al-Ruzzeh S, Athanasiou T, Choudhury M, Tekkis P, Vuddamalay P, et al. Comparison of clinical and economic outcomes of two antibiotic prophylaxis regimens for sternal wound infection in high-risk patients following coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: a prospective randomised double-blind controlled trial. Heart 2007;93(9):1126-33.
Diehr 2007 {published data only}
Finkelstein 2002 {published data only}
  • Finkelstein R, Rabino G, Mashiah T, Bar-El Y, Adler Z, Kertzman V, et al. Vancomycin versus cefazolin prophylaxis for cardiac surgery in the setting of a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal infections. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2002;123(2):326-32.
Frimodt-Moller 1982 {published data only}
Kanellakopoulou 2009 {published data only}
  • Kanellakopoulou K, Papadopoulos A, Varvaroussis D, Varvaroussis A, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Pagonas A, et al. Efficacy of teicoplanin for the prevention of surgical site infections after total hip or knee arthroplasty: a prospective, open-label study. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2009;33(5):437-40.
Kato 2006 {published data only}
  • Kato D, Maezawa K, Yonezawa I, Iwase Y, Ikeda H, Nozawa M, et al. Randomized prospective study on prophylactic antibiotics in clean orthopedic surgery in one ward for 1 year. Journal of Orthopaedic Science 2006;11(1):20-7.
Keighley 1979 {published data only}
  • Keighley MR, Arabi Y, Alexander-Williams J, Youngs D, Burdon DW. Comparison between systemic and oral antimicrobial prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. Lancet 1979;313(8122):894-7.
Maki 1992 {published data only}
  • Maki DG, Bohn MJ, Stolz SM, Kroncke GM, Acher CW, Myerowitz PD. Comparative study of cefazolin, cefamandole, and vancomycin for surgical prophylaxis in cardiac and vascular operations. A double-blind randomized trial. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 1992;104(5):1423-34.
Marroni 1999 {published data only}
  • Marroni M, Cao P, Fiorio M, Maghini M, Lenti M, Repetto A, et al. Prospective, randomized, double-blind trial comparing teicoplanin and cefazolin as antibiotic prophylaxis in prosthetic vascular surgery. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 1999;18(3):175-8.
Mindermann 1993 {published data only}
Palmer 1995 {published data only}
Poon 1998 {published data only}
  • Poon WS, Ng S, Wai S. CSF antibiotic prophylaxis for neurosurgical patients with ventriculostomy: a randomised study. Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement 1998;71:146-8.
Ramos 2008 {published data only}
  • Ramos G, Resta M, Delgado EM, Durlach R, Canigia LF, Benaim F. Systemic perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis may improve skin autograft survival in patients with acute burns. Journal of Burn Care and Research 2008;29(6):917-23.
Saginur 2000 {published data only}
  • Saginur R, Croteau D, Bergeron MG. Comparative efficacy of teicoplanin and cefazolin for cardiac operation prophylaxis in 3027 patients The ESPRIT Group. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2000;120(6):1120-30.
Salminen 1999 {published data only}
  • Salminen US, Viljanen TU, Valtonen VV, Ikonen TE, Sahlman AE, Harjula AL. Ceftriaxone versus vancomycin prophylaxis in cardiovascular surgery. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1999;44(2):287-90.
Tacconelli 2008 {published data only}
  • Tacconelli E, Cataldo MA, Albanese A, Tumbarello M, Arduini E, Spanu T, et al. Vancomycin versus cefazolin prophylaxis for cerebrospinal shunt placement in a hospital with a high prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Hospital Infection 2008;69(4):337-44.
Tyllianakis 2010 {published data only}
  • Tyllianakis ME, Karageorgos A, Marangos MN, Saridis AG, Lambiris EE. Antibiotic prophylaxis in primary hip and knee arthroplasty: comparison between cefuroxime and two specific antistaphylococcal agents. Journal of Arthroplasty 2010;25(7):1078-82.
Weaver 1986 {published data only}
  • Weaver M, Burdon DW, Youngs DJ, Keighley MR. Oral neomycin and erythromycin compared with single-dose systemic metronidazole and ceftriaxone prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery. American Journal of Surgery 1986;151(4):437-42.
Wilson 1988 {published data only}
  • Wilson AP, Treasure T, Gruneberg RN, Sturridge MF, Ross DN. Antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery: a prospective comparison of two dosage regimens of teicoplanin with a combination of flucloxacillin and tobramycin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1988;21(2):213-23.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Alou 2004
  • Alou L, Cafini F, Sevillano D, Unzueta I, Prieto J. In vitro activity of mupirocin and amoxicillin-clavulanate alone and in combination against staphylococci including those resistant to methicillin. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2004;23(5):513-6.
Barber 1961
Boyce 1994
  • Boyce JM, Jackson MM, Pugliese G, Batt MD, Fleming D, Garner JS, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): a briefing for acute care hospitals and nursing facilities. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1994;15(2):105-15.
Cantoni 1989
  • Cantoni L, Wenger A, Glauser MP, Bille J. Comparative efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanate, cloxacillin, and vancomycin against methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in rats. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 1989;159(5):989-93.
Chambers 2010
  • Chambers D, Worthy G, Myers L, Weatherly H, Elliott R, Hawkins N, et al. Glycopeptide vs. non-glycopeptide antibiotics for prophylaxis of surgical site infections: a systematic review. Surgical Infections 2010;11(5):455-62.
Chemaly 2010
  • Chemaly RF, Hachem RY, Husni RN, Bahna B, Rjaili GA, Waked A, et al. Characteristics and outcomes of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical-site infections in patients with cancer: a case-control study. Annals of Surgical Oncology 2010;17(6):1499-506.
Chua 2008
  • Chua T, Moore CL, Perri MB, Donabedian SM, Masch W, Vager D, et al. Molecular epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream isolates in urban Detroit. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2008;46(7):2345-52.
Cowie 2005
  • Cowie SE, Ma I, Lee SK, Smith RM, Hsiang YN. Nosocomial MRSA infection in vascular surgery patients: impact on patient outcome. Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2005;39(4):327-34.
Creamer 2011
  • Creamer E, Galvin S, Dolan A, Sherlock O, Dimitrov BD, Fitzgerald-Hughes D, et al. Evaluation of screening risk and non risk patients for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on admission in an acute care hospital. American Journal of Infection Control 2012;40(5):411-5.
DeMets 1987
DerSimonian 1986
ECDC 2009a
  • ECDC. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Annual epidemiological report on communicable diseases in Europe. http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/0910_SUR_Annual_Epidemiological_Report_on_Communicable_Diseases_in_Europe.pdf 2009 (accessed on 17 July 2011).
ECDC 2009b
  • ECDC. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The bacterial challenge: time to react. A call to narrow the gap between multi-drug resistant bacteria in the EU and the development of new anti-bacterial agents. http://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/0909_TER_The_Bacterial_Challenge_Time_to_React.pdf 2009 (accessed on 17 July 2011).
Egger 1997
Fraser 2010
  • Fraser S, Brady R, Graham C, Paterson-Brown S, Gibb A. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus in surgical patients: Identification of high-risk populations for the development of targeted screening programmes. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 2010;92(4):311-5.
Garner 1986
Gurusamy
  • Gurusamy K, Koti R, Toon C, Wilson P, Davidson BR. Antibiotic therapy for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in surgical wounds. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews In Press.
Gurusamy 2009
Harbarth 2008a
  • Harbarth S, Huttner B, Gervaz P, Fankhauser C, Chraiti MN, Schrenzel J, et al. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2008;29(9):890-3.
Harbarth 2008b
  • Harbarth S, Fankhauser C, Schrenzel J, Christenson J, Gervaz P, Bandiera-Clerc C, et al. Universal screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at hospital admission and nosocomial infection in surgical patients. JAMA 2008;299(10):1149-57.
Higgins 2002
Higgins 2011a
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Colloboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Higgins 2011b
  • Higgins JPT, Altman DG, on behalf of the Cochrane Statistical Methods Group and the Cochrane Bias Methods Group (editors). Chapter 8:  Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Higgins 2011c
  • Higgins JPT, Deeks JJ and Altman DG on behalf of the Cochrane Statistical Methods Group (editors). Chapter 16: Special topics in statistics. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Horan 1992
  • Horan TC, Gaynes RP, Martone WJ, Jarvis WR, Emori TG. CDC definitions of nosocomial surgical site infections, 1992: a modification of CDC definitions of surgical wound infections. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 1992;13(10):606-8.
ICH-GCP 1996
  • International conference on harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use. Code of Federal Regulation & ICH Guidelines. Media: Parexel Barnett, 1996.
Jevons 1961
  • Jevons PM. “Celbenin” - resistant Staphylococci. British Medical Journal 1961;1(5219):124-5.
Kallen 2010
Kang 2012
  • Kang J, Mandsager P, Biddle AK, Weber DJ. Cost-effectiveness analysis of active surveillance screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an academic hospital setting. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2012;33(5):477-86.
Kaye 2008
  • Kaye KS, Anderson DJ, Choi Y, Link K, Thacker P, Sexton DJ. The deadly toll of invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in community hospitals. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2008;46(10):1568-77.
Kjaergard 2001
Klimek 1976
  • Klimek JJ, Marsik FJ, Bartlett RC, Weir B, Shea P, Quintiliani R. Clinical, epidemiologic and bacteriologic observations of an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at a large community hospital. American Journal of Medicine 1976;61(3):340-5.
Knox 1961
Kuehnert 2005
  • Kuehnert MJ, Hill HA, Kupronis BA, Tokars JI, Solomon SL, Jernigan DB. Methicillin-resistant–Staphylococcus aureus hospitalizations, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2005;11(6):868-72.
Lamagni 2011
  • Lamagni TL, Potz N, Powell D, Pebody R, Wilson J, Duckworth G. Mortality in patients with meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia, England 2004-2005. Journal of Hospital Infection 2011;77(1):16-20.
Lefebvre 2011
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J on behalf of the Cochrane Information Retrieval Methods Group. Chapter 6:  Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Lewis 2011
  • Lewis T, Chaudhry R, Nightingale P, Lambert P, Das I. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: epidemiology, outcome, and laboratory characteristics in a tertiary referral center in the UK. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2011;15(2):e131-5.
Liu 2011
  • Liu C, Bayer A, Cosgrove SE, Daum RS, Fridkin SK, Gorwitz RJ, et al. Clinical practice guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in adults and children: executive summary. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2011;52(3):285-92.
Loeb 2003
  • Loeb MB, Main C, Eady A, Walkers-Dilks C. Antimicrobial drugs for treating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003340]
Macaskill 2001
Moher 1998
  • Moher D, Pham B, Jones A, Cook DJ, Jadad AR, Moher M, et al. Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses?. Lancet 1998;352(9128):609-13.
Muto 2003
  • Muto CA, Jernigan JA, Ostrowsky BE, Richet HM, Jarvis WR, Boyce JM, et al. SHEA guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and enterococcus. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2003;24(5):362-86.
Newell 1992
O'Toole 1970
OED 2011
  • OED. Oxford English dictionary. The definitive record of the English language. http://www.oed.com/ 2011 (accessed on 7 April, 2011).
Otter 2011
  • Otter JA, French GL. Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains as a cause of healthcare-associated infection. Journal of Hospital Infection 2011;79(3):189-93.
Parmar 1998
Prieto 1998
  • Prieto J, Aguilar L, Gimenez MJ, Toro D, Gomez-Lus ML, Dal-Re R, et al. In vitro activities of co-amoxiclav at concentrations achieved in human serum against the resistant subpopulation of heteroresistant Staphylococcus aureus: a controlled study with vancomycin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 1998;42(7):1574-7.
Reddy 2007
  • Reddy SL, Grayson AD, Smith G, Warwick R, Chalmers JA. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections following cardiac surgery: incidence, impact and identifying adverse outcome traits. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 2007;32(1):113-7.
RevMan 2011 [Computer program]
  • Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Ridgeway 2005
  • Ridgeway S, Wilson J, Charlet A, Kafatos G, Pearson A, Coello R. Infection of the surgical site after arthroplasty of the hip. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume 2005;87(6):844-50.
Sanjay 2010
  • Sanjay P, Fawzi A, Kulli C, Polignano FM, Tait IS. Impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection on patient outcome after pancreatoduodenectomy (PD)--a cause for concern?. Pancreas 2010;39(8):1211-4.
Schroeder 2005
Schulz 1995
  • Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995;273(5):408-12.
Schunemann 2011a
  • Schünemann HJ, Oxman AD, Higgins JPT, Vist GE, Glasziou P, Guyatt GH. Chapter 11: Presenting results and ‘Summary of findings' tables. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Schunemann 2011b
  • Schünemann HJ, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Higgins JPT, Deeks JJ, Glasziou P, Guyatt GH. Chapter 12: Interpreting results and drawing conclusions. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Shukla 2009
  • Shukla S, Nixon M, Acharya M, Korim MT, Pandey R. Incidence of MRSA surgical-site infection in MRSA carriers in an orthopaedic trauma unit. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume 2009;91(2):225-8.
Sieradzki 1999
  • Sieradzki K, Roberts RB, Haber SW, Tomasz A. The development of vancomycin resistance in a patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. New England Journal of Medicine 1999;340(7):517-23.
SIGN 2008
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery. A national clinical guideline. http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign104.pdf 2008 (accessed 14 February 2013); Vol. 104.
SIGN 2013
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Search filters. http://www.sign.ac.uk/methodology/filters.html#random (Accessed May 23 2013).
Skov 2005
  • Skov R, SSAC MRSA Working Party. MRSA infections increasing in the Nordic countries. Euro Surveillance 2005;10(31):E050804.2.
Spence 2011
  • Spence MR, Dammel T, Courser S. Contact precautions for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization: costly and unnecessary?. American Journal of Infection Control 2012;40(6):535-8.
Wang 2010
  • Wang JT, Wang JL, Fang CT, Chie WC, Lai MS, Lauderdale TL, et al. Risk factors for mortality of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infection: with investigation of the potential role of community-associated MRSA strains. Journal of Infection 2010;61(6):449-57.
Wood 2008
  • Wood L, Egger M, Gluud LL, Schulz KF, Jüni P, Altman GD, et al. Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 2008;336(7544):601-5.
Wulf 2008