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Inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists versus short-acting beta2-agonists alone for children with acute asthma in hospital

  1. Kevin Vézina1,
  2. Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan2,
  3. Francine M Ducharme3,4,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Airways Group

Published Online: 31 JUL 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 17 DEC 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010283.pub2


How to Cite

Vézina K, Chauhan BF, Ducharme FM. Inhaled anticholinergics and short-acting beta2-agonists versus short-acting beta2-agonists alone for children with acute asthma in hospital. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD010283. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010283.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    CHU Sainte-Justine, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal, QC, Canada

  2. 2

    Research Centre, CHU Sainte-Justine, Clinical Research Unit on Childhood Asthma, Montreal, QC, Canada

  3. 3

    University of Montreal, Department of Paediatrics, Montreal, QC, Canada

  4. 4

    CHU Sainte-Justine, Research Centre, Montreal, Canada

*Francine M Ducharme, Department of Paediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. francine.m.ducharme@umontreal.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 31 JUL 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Craven 2001 {published data only}
  • Craven D, Kercsmar CM, Myers TR, O'Riordan MA, Golonka G, Moore S, et al. Ipratropium bromide plus nebulized albuterol for the treatment of hospitalized children with acute asthma. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;138(1):51-8.
Goggin 2001 {published data only}
  • Goggin N, Macarthur C, Parkin PC. Randomized trial of the addition of ipratropium bromide to albuterol and corticosteroid therapy in children hospitalized because of an acute asthma exacerbation. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2001;155(12):1329-34.
Lew 1990 {published data only}
  • Lew DB, Herrod HG, Crawford LV. Combination of atropine and isoetharine aerosol therapy in pediatric acute asthma. Annals of Allergy 1990;64(2 Pt 2):195-200.
Mirkinson 2000 {published data only}
  • Mirkinson LJ, Ottolini MM. The evaluation of the use of ipratropium bromide in children hospitalized with acute asthma. Pediatric Research 2000;47(4):479A. [CN-00401958]
Ozdemir 2003 {published data only}
  • Ozdemir M, Akcakaya N, Camioglu Y, Cokugras H. Ipratropium bromide plus nebulized ß-2 agonist for the treatment of hospitalized children with acute asthma attack [Abstract]. Allergy and Clinical Immunology International: Journal of the World Allergy Organization 2003;1(Suppl):Abstract No: P-2-7.
Rayner 1987 {published data only}
Storr 1986 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Ahmad 2010 {published data only}
  • Ahmad J, Ali Khan R, Malik MA. A study of Nigella sativa oil in the management of wheeze associated lower respiratory tract illness in children. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2010;4(7):436-9.
Allen 2005A {published data only}
  • Allen JY, MacIas CG, Allen Joseph Y, Macias Charles G. The efficacy of ketamine in pediatric emergency department patients who present with acute severe asthma. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2005;46(1):43-50.
Andrews 2009 {published data only}
  • Andrews T, McGintee E, Mittal MK, Tyler L, Chew A, Zhang X, et al. High-dose continuous nebulized levalbuterol for pediatric status asthmaticus: a randomized trial. Journal of Pediatrics 2009;155(2):205-10.e1. [CN-00699100]
Avital 1992 {published data only}
Azevedo 1990 {published data only}
  • Azevedo M, da Costa JT, Fontes P, da Silva JP, Araujo O. Effect of terfenadine and ipratropium bromide on ultrasonically nebulized distilled water-induced asthma. Journal of International Medical Research 1990;18(1):37-49.
Becker 1999 {published data only}
  • Becker JM, Arora A, Scarfone RJ, Spector ND, Fontana-Penn ME, Gracely E, et al. Oral versus intravenous corticosteroids in children hospitalized with asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1999;103(4):586-90.
Benito Fernandez 2000 {published data only}
  • Benito Fernández J, Mintegui Raso S, Sánchez Echaniz J, Vázquez Ronco MA, Pijoan Zubizarreta JI, Benito Fernandez J, et al. [Efficacy of early administration of nebulized ipratropium bromide in children with asthmatic crisis]. [Spanish] [Eficacia de la administracion precoz de bromuro de ipratropio nebulizado en ninos con crisis asmatica]. Anales Espanoles de Pediatria 2000;53(3):217-22. [CN-00372775]
Berger 2006 {published data only}
  • Berger WE, Milgrom H, Skoner DP, Tripp K, Parsey MV, Baumgartner RA, et al. Evaluation of levalbuterol metered dose inhaler in pediatric patients with asthma: a double-blind, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2006;22(6):1217-26.
Bigham 2010 {published data only}
  • Bigham MT, Jacobs BR, Monaco MA, Brilli RJ, Wells D, Conway EM, et al. Helium/oxygen-driven albuterol nebulization in the management of children with status asthmaticus: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 2010;11(3):356-61.
Boeree 1998 {published data only}
  • Boeree MJ, Peters FTM, Postma DS, Kleibeuker JH. No effects of high-dose omeprazole in patients with severe airway hyperresponsiveness and (a)symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux. European Respiratory Journal 1998;11(5):1070-4.
Bogie 2007 {published data only}
  • Bogie AL, Towne D, Luckett PM, Abramo TJ, Wiebe RA. Comparison of intravenous terbutaline versus normal saline in pediatric patients on continuous high-dose nebulized albuterol for status asthmaticus. Pediatric Emergency Care 2007;23(6):355-61.
Bradshaw 2008 {published data only}
  • Bradshaw TA, Matusiewicz SP, Crompton GK, Alastair Innes J, Greening AP. Intravenous magnesium sulphate provides no additive benefit to standard management in acute asthma. Respiratory Medicine 2008;102(1):143-9.
Brenner 1988 {published data only}
Browne 2002 {published data only}
  • Browne GJ, Trieu L, Van Asperen P. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous salbutamol and nebulized ipratropium bromide in early management of severe acute asthma in children presenting to an emergency department. Critical Care Medicine 2002;30(2):448-53.
Camargo 2010 {published data only}
  • Camargo CA, Gurner DM, Smithline HA, Chapela R, Fabbri LM, Green SA, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled study of intravenous montelukast for the treatment of acute asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2010;125(2):374-80.
Chen 2008 {published data only}
  • Chen ZG, Li M, Chen H, Chen YF, Chen FH, Ji JZ. [Efficacy of pulmicort suspension plus salbutamol and ipratropium bromide for management of acute asthma exacerbation in children: a comparative study]. [Chinese]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao [Journal of Southern Medical University] 2008;28(3):470-2.
Chen 2012 {published data only}
  • Chen AH, Chen RC, Zhan JY, Huang S, Lin YN, Chen DH, et al. [The efficacy of nebulized budesonide in acute moderate to severe exacerbations of asthma in children]. [Chinese]. Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 2012;35(4):269-74.
Chowdhury 1995 {published data only}
  • Chowdhury D, al Howasi M, Khalil M, al-Frayh AS, Chowdhury S, Ramia S. The role of bronchodilators in the management of bronchiolitis: a clinical trial. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1995;15(1):77-84.
Coulthard 1985 {published data only}
  • Coulthard K, Lines D, Rossi S, Cressi N. Inhaled ipratropium bromide (atrovent) in asthmatic children [abstract]. Australian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1985, (Suppl):52. [CN-00279610]
Cydulka 2010 {published data only}
Dahlen 2012 {published data only}
  • Dahlen B, Gomez FP, Casas A, Howarth PH, Dahlen SE, Rodriguez-Roisin R. Salbutamol but not ipratropium abolishes leukotriene D4-induced gas exchange abnormalities in asthma. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 2012;68(10):1375-83.
de Jong 1996 {published data only}
  • de Jong JW, van der Mark TW, Koëter GH, Postma DS. Rebound airway obstruction and responsiveness after cessation of terbutaline: effects of budesonide. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1996;153(1):70-5.
Douma 1998 {published data only}
  • Douma WR, Kerstjens HA, Rooyackers JM, Koëter GH, Postma DS. Risk of over treatment with current peak flow criteria in self-management plans. Dutch CNSLD Study Group. Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease. European Respiratory Journal 1998;12(4):848-52 [CRS-ID: 4900100000006167].
Ducharme 1998 {published data only}
  • Ducharme FM, Davis GM. Randomized controlled trial of ipratropium bromide and frequent low doses of salbutamol in the management of mild and moderate acute pediatric asthma. Journal of Pediatrics 1998;133(4):479-85.
Dutt 1990 {published data only}
  • Dutt NS, Reddy TC, Raghuveer TS, Yeshwanth M, Sunil Dutt N, Chinnapa Reddy T, et al. A comparative study of atropine sulphate, terbutaline and their combination in asthmatic children. Lung India 1990;8(2):73-5. [INDMED: TB687]
Freeman 1989A {published data only}
Friberg 1989A {published data only}
Garcia 1998 {published data only}
  • Garcia J, Roure P, Hayem C, Dupont D. [Bronchial endoscopy under local anesthesia and pain in children. The value of a nitrous oxide-oxygen combination] [Endoscopie bronchique sous anesthésie locale et douleur chez l'enfant. Intérêt du mélange protoxyde d'azote-oxygène]. Revue Des Maladies Respiratoires 1998;15(2):179-83.
González 1989 {published data only}
  • González R, Girardi G. [Therapy with ketotifen in breast-fed infants with asthma] [Terapia con ketotifeno en el asma del lactante]. Boletin Medico Del Hospital Infantil de Mexico 1989;46(6):395-8. [CN-00061291]
Goodacre 2013 {published data only}
  • Goodacre S, Cohen J, Bradburn M, Gray A, Benger J, Coats T. Intravenous or nebulised magnesium sulphate versus standard therapy for severe acute asthma (3Mg trial): a double-blind, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2013;1(4):293-300.
Gouin 1999 {published data only}
Gove 1988 {published data only}
Greenough 1986 {published data only}
Groot 1994 {published data only}
  • Groot CA, Lammers JW, Festen J, van Herwaarden CL. The protective effects of ipratropium bromide and terbutaline on distilled water-induced bronchoconstriction. Pulmonary Pharmacology 1994;7(1):59-63.
Haahtela 1991A {published data only}
  • Haahtela T, Ahokas I, Ahonen A, van Assendelft A, Havu M, Havu K, et al. Inhaled bronchodilators in asthma: low or high dose?. Annals of Allergy 1991;66(2):175-80.
Hardasmalani 2005 {published data only}
  • Hardasmalani MD, DeBari V, Bithoney WG, Gold N. Levalbuterol versus racemic albuterol in the treatment of acute exacerbation of asthma in children. Pediatric Emergency Care 2005;21(7):415-9.
Hayday 2002E {published data only}
  • Hayday K, Stevermer JJ. In children hospitalized for asthma exacerbations, does adding ipratropium bromide to albuterol and corticosteroids improve outcome?. Journal of Family Pracitice 2002;51(3):280.
Henry 1989 {published data only}
  • Henry RL, Hankin RG, Abramson R. Comparison of preservative-free and preservative-containing ipratropium bromide. Australian Paediatric Journal 1989;25(2):86-8.
Iramain 2011 {published data only}
  • Iramain R, López-Herce J, Coronel J, Spitters C, Guggiari J, Bogado N. Inhaled salbutamol plus ipratropium in moderate and severe asthma crises in children. Journal of Asthma 2011;48(3):298-303.
Israel 2004 {published data only}
  • Israel E, Chinchilli VM, Ford JG, Boushey HA, Cherniack R, Craig TJ, et al. Use of regularly scheduled albuterol treatment in asthma: genotype-stratified, randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over trial.[see comment]. Lancet 2004;364(9444):1505-12.
Jiang 2006 {published data only}
  • Jiang W-H, Deng L, Wen H-H, Yu J-L, Zeng Q. [Effects of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide inhalation on pulmonary function in young children with asthmatoid bronchitis]. [Chinese]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics] 2006;8(4):295-7.
Kaptein 1993 {published data only}
  • Kaptein AA, Brand PLP, Dekker FW, Kerstjens HAM, Postma DS, Sluiter HJ. Quality-of-life in a long-term multicentre trial in chronic nonspecific lung disease: assessment at baseline. European Respiratory Journal 1993;6(10):1479-84.
Kelso 2011 {published data only}
  • Kelso JM. Effect of addition of single dose of oral montelukast to standard treatment in acute moderate to severe asthma in children between 5 and 15 years of age: a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Pediatrics 2011;128(Suppl 3):S128-9.
Kerstjens 1992 {published data only}
  • Kerstjens HA, Brand PL, Hughes MD, Robinson NJ, Postma DS, Sluiter HJ, et al. A comparison of bronchodilator therapy with or without inhaled corticosteroid therapy for obstructive airways disease. Dutch Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease Study Group [see comments]. New England Journal of Medicine 1992;327(20):1413-9.
Kerstjens 1993 {published data only}
  • Kerstjens HA, Brand PL, Quanjer PH, van der Bruggen-Bogaarts BA, Koëter GH, Postma DS. Variability of bronchodilator response and effects of inhaled corticosteroid treatment in obstructive airways disease. Dutch CNSLD Study Group. Thorax 1993;48(7):722-9.
Kerstjens 1994 {published data only}
  • Kerstjens HA, Brand PL, de Jong PM, Koëter GH, Postma DS. Influence of treatment on peak expiratory flow and its relation to airway hyperresponsiveness and symptoms. The Dutch CNSLD Study Group. Thorax 1994;49(11):1109-15.
Kerstjens 1995 {published data only}
  • Kerstjens HAM, Schouten JP, Brand PLP, Schoonbrood DFME, Sterk PJ, Postma DS, et al. Importance of total serum IgE for improvement in airways hyperresponsiveness with inhaled corticosteroids in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Dutch CNSLD Study Group. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1995;151(2 Pt 1):360-8. [CN-00365546]
Knöpfli 2005 {published data only}
Lanes 1998 {published data only}
  • Lanes SF, Garrett JE, Wentworth CE3, Fitzgerald JM, Karpel JP. The effect of adding ipratropium bromide to salbutamol in the treatment of acute asthma: a pooled analysis of three trials [English]. Chest 1998;114(2):365-72.
Lowry 1994 {published data only}
Macias 2003A {published data only}
  • Macias CG, Felner EI, Gan V, Macias CG, Felner EI, Gan V. Inhaled corticosteroids may be superior to systemic corticosteroids in children with moderate-to-severe acute asthma . Pediatric Asthma Allergy and Immunology  2003;16(3):121-8.
Mallol 1987a {published data only}
Mallol 1987bA {published data only}
Maneechotesuwan 2011 {published data only}
  • Maneechotesuwan K, Suthamsmai T, Ratanasaenglert K, Pipopsuthipaiboon S. Bronchodilator effect of Ipraterol on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2011;94(Suppl 1):S66-71.
McDowell 1998 {published data only}
  • McDowell KM, Chatburn RL, Myers TR, O'Riordan MA, Kercsmar CM. A cost-saving algorithm for children hospitalized for status asthmaticus. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1998;152(10):977-84. [CN-00156088]
Meier 1997 {published data only}
Mitchell 2005A {published data only}
  • Mitchell EA, Didsbury PB, Kruithof N, Robinson E, Milmine M, Barry M, et al. A randomized controlled trial of an asthma clinical pathway for children in general practice. Acta Paediatrica 2005;94(2):226-33.
Morris 2010 {published data only}
  • Morris CR, Becker AB, Piñieiro A, Massaad R, Green SA, Smugar SS, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of intravenous montelukast in children with acute asthma. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2010;104(2):161-71.
Morrison 1989 {published data only}
Nakano 2000 {published data only}
  • Nakano Y, Enomoto N, Kawamoto A, Hirai R, Chida K. Efficacy of adding multiple doses of oxitropium bromide to salbutamol delivered by means of a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer device in adults with acute severe asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2000;106(3):472-8.
Newnham 1995A {published data only}
  • Newnham DM, Grove A, McDevitt DG, Lipworth BJ. Subsensitivity of bronchodilator and systemic beta 2 adrenoceptor responses after regular twice daily treatment with eformoterol dry powder in asthmatic patients. Thorax 1995;50(5):497-504.
Nibhanipudi 2009 {published data only}
  • Nibhanipudi K, Hassen GW, Smith A. Beneficial effects of warmed humidified oxygen combined with nebulized albuterol and ipratropium in pediatric patients with acute exacerbation of asthma in winter months. Journal of Emergency Medicine 2009;37(4):446-50.
O'Driscoll 1989B {published data only}
Overbeek 1996 {published data only}
  • Overbeek SE, Kerstjens HA, Bogaard JM, Mulder PG, Postma DS. Is delayed introduction of inhaled corticosteroids harmful in patients with obstructive airways disease (asthma and COPD)? The Dutch CNSLD Study Group. The Dutch Chronic Nonspecific Lung Disease Study Groups. Chest 1996;110(1):35-41 [CRS-ID: 4900100000005270].
Parkin 1995 {published data only}
Peters 2000 {published data only}
  • Peters JI, Shelledy DC, Jones APJ, Lawson RW, Davis CP, LeGrand TS. A randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the role of salmeterol in the in-hospital management of asthma. Chest 2000;118(2):313-20.
Ponce 2009 {published data only}
  • Ponce Castro H, Rodríguez Gaytán R, Rodríguez Orozco AR. Efficacy of two methods of administration of salbutamol-ipratropium bromide in asthma crises [Eficacia de dos métodos de administración de salbutamol-bromuro de ipratropio en crisis asmática]. Revista Alergia Mexico (Tecamachalco, Puebla, Mexico : 1993) 2009;56(5):149-53.
Powell 2012a {published data only}
  • Powell CVE. A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study of nebulised magnesium sulphate in acute asthma in children—the magnetic study [Abstract]. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2012;97(Suppl 1):A2-3.
Powell 2013 {published data only}
  • Powell C, Kolamunnage-Dona R, Lowe J, Boland A, Petrou S, Doull I, et al. Magnesium sulphate in acute severe asthma in children (MAGNETIC): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2013;1(4):301-8.
Qureshi 1997 {published data only}
Qureshi 1998 {published data only}
  • Qureshi F, Pestian J, Davis P, Zaritsky A. Effect of nebulized ipratropium on the hospitalization rates of children with asthma. New England Journal of Medicine 1998;339(15):1030-5. [CN-00155153]
Qureshi 2001 {published data only}
  • Qureshi F, Zaritsky A, Poirier MP, Saritsky A, Poirier M. Comparative efficacy of oral dexamethasone versus oral prednisone in acute pediatric asthma. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;139(1):20-6.
Qureshi 2005 {published data only}
  • Qureshi F, Zaritsky A, Welch C, Meadows T, Burke BL. Clinical efficacy of racemic albuterol versus levalbuterol for the treatment of acute pediatric asthma. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2005;46(1):29-36.
Raes 1989 {published data only}
  • Raes M, Mulder P, Kerrebijn KF. Long-term effect of ipratropium bromide and fenoterol on the bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine in children with asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1989;84(6 Pt 1):874-9.
Raissy 2006 {published data only}
  • Raissy HH, Davies L, Marshik P, Kelly HW. Inspiratory flow through dry-powder inhalers (DPIs) in asthmatic children 2 to 12 years old. Pediatric Asthma, Allergy and Immunology 2006;19(4):223-30.
Ralston 2005 {published data only}
  • Ralston ME, Euwema MS, Knecht KR, Ziolkowski TJ, Coakley TA, Cline SM. Comparison of levalbuterol and racemic albuterol combined with ipratropium bromide in acute pediatric asthma: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Emergency Medicine 2005;29(1):29-35.
Ream 2001 {published data only}
Reisman 1988A {published data only}
  • Reisman J, Galdes-Sebaldt M, Kazim F, Canny G, Levison H. Frequent administration by inhalation of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide in the initial management of severe acute asthma in children. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1988;81(1):16-20.
Richards 1987 {published data only}
Roberts 2003 {published data only}
  • Roberts G, Newsom D, Gomez K, Raffles A, Saglani S, Begent J, et al. Intravenous salbutamol bolus compared with an aminophylline infusion in children with severe asthma: a randomised controlled trial. Thorax 2003;58(4):306-10.
Rodriguez 2008 {published data only}
  • Rodriguez E, Vera V, Perez-Puigbo A, Capriles-Hulett A, Ferro S, Manrique J, et al. Equivalence of a single saline nebulised dose of formoterol powder vs three doses of nebulised albuterol every twenty minutes in acute asthma in children: a suitable cost effective approach for developing nations. Allergologia Et Immunopathologia 2008;36(4):196-200.
Rowe 2007 {published data only}
  • Rowe BH, Wong E, Blitz S, Diner B, Mackey D, Ross S, et al. Adding long-acting beta-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids after discharge from the emergency department for acute asthma: a randomized controlled trial. Academic Emergency Medicine 2007;14(10):833-40.
Salmun 1999 {published data only}
  • Salmun LM, Barlan I, Wolf HM, Eibl M, Twarog FJ, Geha RS, et al. Effect of intravenous immunoglobulin on steroid consumption in patients with severe asthma: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1999;103(5 Pt 1):810-5.
Sano 2000 {published data only}
  • Sano F, Cortez GK, Solé D, Naspitz CK. Inhaled budesonide for the treatment of acute wheezing and dyspnea in children up to 24 months old receiving intravenous hydrocortisone. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2000;105(4):699-703. [CN-00277091]
Schuh 1992 {published data only}
  • Schuh S, Johnson D, Canny G, Reisman J, Shields M, Kovesi T, et al. Efficacy of adding nebulized ipratropium bromide to nebulized albuterol therapy in acute bronchiolitis. Pediatrics 1992;90(6):920-3.
Schuh 1995 {published data only}
  • Schuh S, Johnson DW, Callahan S, Canny G, Levison H. Efficacy of frequent nebulized ipratropium bromide added to frequent high-dose albuterol therapy in severe childhood asthma. Journal of Pediatrics 1995;126(4):639-45.
Schuh 1997 {published data only}
Self 2002 {published data only}
  • Self TH, Redmond AM, Nguyen WT. Reassessment of theophylline use for severe asthma exacerbation: is it justified in critically ill hospitalized patients?. Journal of Asthma 2002;39(8):677-86.
Sengul 2013 {published data only}
  • Sengul Gokalp A, Bicer S, Siraneci R. Efficacy of nebulized ipratropium bromide in the treatment of acute asthma in children: randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial [Cocukluk cagi akut astim atagi tedavisinde nebulize ipratropium bromurun etkinlgi: cift kor randomize kontrollu calisma]. Nobel Medicus 2013;9(1):67-75.
Sienra Monge 2000 {published data only}
  • Sienra Monge JJ, Bermejo Guevara MA, del Rio Navarro BE, Rosas Vargas MA, Reyes Ruiz NI, Del Rio Navarro BE. [Degree and duration of bronchodilatation with an agonist beta 2 administered alone versus an agonist beta 2 administered with ipratropium bromide in children with acute asthma] [Grado y duracion de la bronchodilatatacion mediante la administracion de un agonista beta 2 solo vs un agonista beta 2 mas bromuro de ipratropio en ninos con asma aguda]. Revista Alergia Mexico (Tecamachalco, Puebla, Mexico : 1993) 2000;47(1):26-9. [CN-00423875]
Silverman 2012 {published data only}
Singh 2008 {published data only}
  • Singh AK, Gaur S, Kumar R. A randomized controlled trial of intravenous magnesium sulphate as an adjunct to standard therapy in acute severe asthma. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology 2008;7(4):221-9.
Singhi 2010 {published data only}
  • Singhi S, Bansal A, Chopra K, Grover S. Randomized comparison of magnesium sulfate, terbutaline and aminophylline infusion in acute severe asthma in children [Abstract]. Critical Care Medicine 2010;38(12 Suppl):Poster 371.
Sly 1987 {published data only}
Stewart 2012 {published data only}
  • Stewart SL, Martin AL, Davis BE, Cockcroft DW. Salbutamol tolerance to bronchoprotection: course of onset. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2012;109(6):454-7.
Stormon 1999 {published data only}
  • Stormon MO, Mellis CM, Van Asperen PP, Kilham HA. Outcome evaluation of early discharge of asthmatic children from hospital: a randomized control trial. Journal of Quality in Clinical Practice 1999;19(3):149-54.
Sur 1990 {published data only}
  • Sur S, Mohiuddin AA, Vichyanond P, Nelson HS. A random double-blind trial of the combination of nebulized atropine methylnitrate and albuterol in nocturnal asthma. Annals of Allergy 1990;65(5):384-8.
Tasche 1997 {published data only}
  • Tasche MJ, van der Wouden JC, Uijen JH, Ponsioen BP, Bernsen RM, van Suijlekom-Smit LW, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of inhaled sodium cromoglycate in 1-4-year-old children with moderate asthma. Lancet 1997;350(9084):1060-4.
Taytard 1987 {published data only}
Timsit 2002 {published data only}
  • Timsit S, Sannier N, Bocquet N, Cojocaru B, Wille C, Boursiquot C, et al. Benefit of ipratropium bromide for the treatment of childhood asthma in the emergency department [Apport du bromure d'ipratropium dans la prise en charge des crises d'asthme aux urgences]. Archives de Pediatrie 2002;9(2):117-24. [CN-00442961]
Ulrik 1992 {published data only}
UNKNOWN 2011 {published data only}
  • Unknnown. Nebulized budesonide added to standard therapy does not improve asthma outcomes. Journal of the National Medical Association 2011;103(9-10):1005.
Upham 2011A {published data only}
Van Asperen 1988 {published data only}
van der Woude 2001A {published data only}
  • Van Der Woude HJ, Winter TH, Aalbers R. Decreased bronchodilating effect of salbutamol in relieving methacholine induced moderate to severe bronchoconstriction during high dose treatment with long acting beta2 agonists. Thorax 2001;56(7):529-35.
Von Berg 2004 {published data only}
  • Von Berg A, Jeena PM, Soemantri PA, Vertruyen A, Schmidt P, Gerken F, et al. Efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide plus fenoterol inhaled via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler vs. a conventional metered dose inhaler plus spacer in children with asthma. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004;37(3):264-72.
Ward 1981 {published data only}
Ward 1985 {published data only}
Watanasomsiri 2006 {published data only}
  • Watanasomsiri A, Phipatanakul W. Comparison of nebulized ipratropium bromide with salbutamol vs salbutamol alone in acute asthma exacerbation in children. Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 2006;96(5):701-6.
Watson 1994 {published data only}
Wilson 1987 {published data only}
  • Wilson NM, Green S, Coe C, Barnes PJ. Duration of protection by oxitropium bromide against cholinergic challenge. European Journal of Respiratory Diseases 1987;71(5):455-8.
Wolstenholme 1989 {published data only}
  • Wolstenholme RJ, Shettar SP. Comparison of a combination of fenoterol with ipratropium bromide (Duovent) and salbutamol in young adults with nocturnal asthma. Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases 1989;55(3):152-7.
Worth 2012 {published data only}
Yang 1993 {published data only}
  • Yang SC, Lee TS, Chen GC. [Effects of ipratropium bromide as a nebulized solution on respiratory function in mechanically ventilated patients]. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 1993;92 Suppl 1:S19-24.
Young 1991 {published data only}
  • Young GP, Freitas P. A randomized comparison of atropine and metaproterenol inhalational therapies for refractory status asthmaticus.[erratum appears in Ann Emerg Med 1991 Sep;20(9):1031]. Annals of Emergency Medicine 1991;20(5):513-9. [CN-00075095]
Youngchaiyud 1989 {published data only}
  • Youngchaiyud P, Charoenratanakul S, Suthamsmai T, Sriwatanakul K. Comparison of fenoterol, ipratropium bromide and their combination in asthma. Siriraj Hospital Gazette 1989;41(4):197-201.
Yung 1998 {published data only}
Zaritsky 1999A {published data only}
Zorc 1999 {published data only}

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Powell 2012 {published data only}
  • Powell C. MAGnesium NEbuliser Trial In Children (MAGNETIC). NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme 2012.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Asher 2010
Camargo 2003
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Chapman 1996
Cunningham 2008
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GINA 2014
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Griffiths 2013
Gross 1988
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Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated September 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration. www.cochrane-handbook.org, 2011.
Karpel 1997
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Lai 2009
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Lim 2000
Lord 1999
NAEPP 2011
  • National Asthma education and Prevention Program. NAEPP Expert Panel Report Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/guidelines/asthma/ (accessed 8 January 2014).
Ortiz-Alvarez 2012
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Plotnick 2000
Rechelefsky 2003
RevMan 5.2 [Computer program]
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Rowe 2001
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Rowe 2004
Sears 1992
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Silverman 1990
Smith 2003
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Svedmyr 1985