This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (21 MAY 2016)

Intervention Protocol

You have free access to this content

Participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities for health and well-being in adults

  1. Kerryn Husk1,
  2. Rebecca Lovell1,
  3. Chris Cooper2,
  4. Ruth Garside1,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Public Health Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010351

How to Cite

Husk K, Lovell R, Cooper C, Garside R. Participation in environmental enhancement and conservation activities for health and well-being in adults (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD010351. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010351.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, European Centre for Environment and Human Health, Truro, Cornwall, UK

  2. 2

    University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Peninsula Technology Assessment Group (PenTAG), Exeter, UK

*Ruth Garside, European Centre for Environment and Human Health, University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Knowledge Spa, Royal Cornwall Hospital, Truro, Cornwall, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013


This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (21 MAY 2016)


Additional references

Anderson 2011
Armijo-Olivo 2012
  • Armijo-Olivo S, Stiles CR, Hagen NA, Biondo PD, Cummings GG. Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment tool: methodological research. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 2012;18(1):12-8.
Armstrong 2007
  • Armstrong R, Waters E, Jackson N, Oliver S, Popay J, Shepherd J, et al. Guidelines for Systematic reviews of health promotion and public health interventions. Version 2. Australia: Melbourne University, 2007.
Beatley 2011
  • Beatley T. Biophilic cities: integrating nature into urban design and planning. Washington: Island Press, 2011.
Bize 2007
  • Bize R, Johnson JA, Plotnikoff RC. Physical activity level and health-related quality of life in the general adult population: a systematic review. Preventitive Medicine 2007;45(6):401-15.
Bowler 2009
  • Bowler D, Knight T, Pullin A S. The value of contact with nature for health promotion: how the evidence has been reviewed. Centre for Evidence-Based Conservation, 2009.
Burls 2005
Burls 2007
  • Burls A. People and green spaces: promoting public health and mental well-being through ecotherapy. Journal of Public Mental Health 2007;6:24-9.
Bushway 2011
  • Bushway J, Dickinson L, Stedman C, Wagenet P, Weinstein A. Benefits, motivations, and barriers related to environmental volunteerism for older adults: developing a research agenda. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 2011;72(3):189-206.
Campbell 2003
  • Campbell R, Pound P, Pope C, Britten N, Pill R, Morgan M, et al. Evaluating meta-ethnography: a synthesis of qualitative research on lay experiences of diabetes and diabetes care. Social Science and Medicine 2003;56:671-84.
Defra 2011
  • Defra HMG. The natural Choice: securing the value of nature. Norwich: The stationary office, 2011.
Endnote 2011 [Computer program]
  • Thomson Reuters. Endnote. Version X5. New York: Thomson Reuters, 2011.
Evans 2008
  • Evans M, Gebbels S, Stockill M. 'Our shared responsibility': participation in ecological projects as a means of empowering communities to contribute to coastal management processes. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2008;57:3-7.
Fazey 2004
  • Fazey I, Salisbury J, Lindenmayer D, Maindonald J, Douglas R. Can methods applied in medicine be used to summarize and disseminate conservation research?. Environmental Conservation 2004;31:190-8.
Fieldhouse 2003
  • Fieldhouse, J. The impact of an allotment group on mental health client's wealth, well-being and social networking. British Journal of Occupational Therapy 2003;66:286-296.
Fjortoft 2001
  • Fjortoft I. The natural environment as a playground for children: the impact of outdoor play activities in pre-primary school Children. Early Childhood Education Journal 2001;29(2):111-7.
Garside 2008
Garside 2010
  • Garside R, Pearson M, Moxham T. What influences the uptake of information to prevent skin cancer? A systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research. Health Education Research 2010;25(1):162-82.
Gruen 2004
  • Gruen RL, Weeramanthri TS, Knight  SE, Bailie RS. Specialist outreach clinics in primary care and rural hospital settings. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003798.pub2]
Hale 2011
  • Hale J, Knapp C, Bardwell L, Buchenau M, Marshall J, Sancar F, et al. Connecting food environments and health through the relational nature of aesthetics: gaining insight through the community gardening experience. Social Science and Medicine 2011;72(11):1853-63.
Hannes 2011
  • Hannes K. Chapter 4: Critical appraisal of qualitative research. In: Noyes J, Booth A, Hannes K, Harden A, Harris J, Lewin S, Lockwood C editor(s). Supplementary Guidance for Inclusion of Qualitative Research in Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 1 (updated August 2011). Bangor: Cochrane Collaboration Qualitative Methods Group, 2011.
Harriet 2010
  • Harriet H, Anderson R, Coelho HF, Garside R, Bayliss S, Fry-Smith A. Preventing obesity: the effectiveness of a whole system approach. (accessed 02082012).
Haubenhofer 2010
  • Haubenhofer D, Elings M, Hassink J, Hine R. The development of green care in western European countries. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing 2010;6(2):106-11.
Hermann 2006
  • Hermann JR, Parker SP, Brown BJ, Siewe YJ, Denney BA, Walker SJ. After-school gardening improves children's reported vegetable intake and physical activity. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2006;38:201-2.
Herzele 2012
  • Herzele A, Vries S. Linking green space to health: a comparative study of two urban neighbourhoods in Ghent, Belgium. Population and Environment 2012;34(2):171-93.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Horwitz 2012
  • Horwitz P, Finlayson M, Weinstein P. Healthy wetlands, healthy people: a review of wetlands and human health interactions. Ramsar Technical Report No. 6. Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Gland, Switzerland, & the The World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland 2012.
Joye 2011
Juni 2002
  • Jüni P, Holenstein F, Sterne J, Bartlett C, Egger M. Direction and impact of language bias in meta-analyses of controlled trials: empirical study. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31:115-23.
Kaplan 1989
  • Kaplan R, Kaplan S. The Experience of Nature: A Psychological Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Kareiva 2002
Lee 2011
Maas 2008
  • Maas J, Verheij R, Spreeuwenberg P, Groenewegen P. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: a multilevel analysis. BMC Public Health 2008;8:206.
Maller 2005
  • Maller C, Townsend M, Pryor A, Brown P, St Leger L. Healthy nature healthy people: "contact with nature" as an upstream health promotion intervention for populations. Health Promotion International 2005;21:45-54.
Maller 2009
Mind 2007
  • Mind. Ecotherapy - the agenda for green mental health. Mind, 2007.
Moher 2003
  • Moher D, Pham B, Lawson ML, Klassen TP. The inclusion of reports of randomised trials published in languages other than English in systematic reviews. Health Technology Assessment 2003;7:1-90.
Moher 2009
Moore 2006
  • Moore M, Townsend M, Oldroyd J. Linking human and ecosystem health: The benefits of community involvement in conservation groups. Ecohealth 2006;3(4):255-61.
Morris 2003
  • Morris N. Health Wellbeing and Open Space: Literature review. Edinburgh: Edinburgh College of Art and Herriot-Watt University, 2003.
Munro 2007
  • Munro SA, Lewin SA, Smith HJ, Engel ME, Fretheim A, Volmink J. Adherence to tuberculosis treatment: a qualitative systematic review of stakeholder perceptions. PLoS Medicine 2007;4(7):e238.
Musick 2003
NEF 2011
  • NEF. Five Ways to Wellbeing. New applications, new ways of thinking. London: New Economic Foundation, 2011.
NICE 2006
  • NICE. Physical activity and the environment: Review Three: Natural Environment In NICE Public Health Collaborating Centre - Physical Activity. London: NICE, 2006.
NICE 2009
  • NICE. Methods for the development of NICE public health guidance (second edition). London: NICE, 2009.
O'Brien 2010
  • O'Brien L, Townsend M, Ebden M. 'Doing something positive': volunteers' experiences of the well-being benefits derived from practical conservation activities in nature. Voluntas 2010;21(4):525-45.
O'Brien 2011
Patz 2012
  • Patz J, Corvalan C, Horwitz P, Campbell-Lendrum D. Our Planet, Our Health, Our Future. Human health and the Rio Conventions: biological diversity, climate change and desertification. A discussion paper, based on a collaboration of the World Health Organization and the Secretariats of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the United Nations Convention to combat desertification. (accessed 09122012).
Peacock 2007
  • Peacock J, Hine R, Pretty J. Got the blues, then find some greenspace. The mental health benefits of green exercise activities and green care. London: Mind, 2007.
Pearson 2010
  • Pearson M, Garside R, Fry-Smith A, Bayliss S, Anderson R. Preventing obesity using a whole system approach at the local level: A systematic review of the qualitative research to identify barriers to and facilitators of effective whole system approaches. (accessed 02082012).
Pillemer 2010
Plante 2007
  • Plante T, Gores C, Brecht C, Caroow J, Imbs A, Willemsen E. Does exercise environment enhance the psychological benefits of exercise for women?. International Journal of Stress Management 2007;14(1):88-98.
Popay 2006
  • Popay J, Roberts H, Sowden AJ, Petticrew M, Arai L, Rodgers M, et al. Guidance on the conduct of narrative synthesis in systematic reviews. Vol. 1, London: ESRC Methods Programme, 2006.
Pretty 2007
  • Pretty J, Peacock J, Hine R, Sellens M, South N, Griffin M. Green exercise in the UK countryside: Effects on health and psychological well-being, and implications for policy and planning. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management 2007;50(2):211-31.
Pullin 2001
Raske 2010
  • Raske M. Nursing home quality of life: study of an enabling garden. Journal of Gerontological Social Work 2010;53(4):336-51.
Review Manager 2012 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012.
RSPB 2004
  • Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Natural fit: can green space and biodiversity increase levels of physical activity?. RSPB, 2004.
Sempik 2010
  • Sempik J, Hine R, Wilcox D (eds). Green Care: A conceptual framework. A report of the working group on health benefits of green care.. Loughborough: Centre for Child and family Research, Loughborough University, 2010.
Smithson 2010
  • Smithson J, Garside R, Pearson M. Barriers to, and facilitators of the prevention of unintentional injury in children in the home: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research. Injury Prevention 2010;17:119-26.
Thomas 2008
Thompson Coon 2011
  • Thompson Coon J, Boddy K, Stein K, Whear R, Barton J, Depledge MH. Does participating in physical activity in outdoor natural environments have a greater effect on physical and mental well-being than physical activity indoors? A systematic review. Environmental Science and Technology 2011;45:1761-72.
Thomson Reuters 2012
  • Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. Citation report: environmental enhancement. (accessed 15082012).
Townsend 2006
  • Townsend M. Feel blue? Touch green! Participation in forest/woodland management as a treatment for depression. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 2006;5(3):111-20.
Ulrich 1991
  • Ulrich R, Simonst R, Lositot B, Fioritot E, Milest M, Zelsont M. Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 1991;11:201-30.
Wallace 2004
  • Wallace A, Croucher K, Quilagars D, Baldwin S. Meeting the challenge: developing systematic reviewing in social policy. Poicy and Politics 2004;32(4):455-70.
Wilson 1984
  • Wilson E O. Biophilia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.