Intervention Review

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Tai chi for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease

  1. Louise Hartley1,
  2. Nadine Flowers1,
  3. Myeong Soo Lee2,
  4. Edzard Ernst3,
  5. Karen Rees1,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Heart Group

Published Online: 9 APR 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 9 DEC 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010366.pub2


How to Cite

Hartley L, Flowers N, Lee MS, Ernst E, Rees K. Tai chi for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD010366. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010366.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Division of Health Sciences, Coventry, Warwickshire, UK

  2. 2

    Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Medical Research Division, Daejeon, Korea, South

  3. 3

    Peninsula Medical School, University of Exeter, Complementary Medicine Department, Exeter, UK

*Karen Rees, Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, Warwickshire, CV4 7AL, UK. Karen.Rees@warwick.ac.uk. rees_karen@yahoo.co.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 9 APR 2014

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Atlanta FICSIT {published data only}
  • Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, McNeely E, Coogler C, Xu T, et al. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of tai chi and computerised balance training. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1996;44:489-97.
  • Wolf SL, Barnhart HX, Kutner NG, McNeely E, Coogler C, Xu T, et al. Selected as the best paper in the 1990s: reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of tai chi and computerised balance training. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2003;51:1794-803.
Gao 2013 {published data only}
  • Gao DQ. Effect of 3-month tai chi exercise on heart and lung capability of elder people. Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Educational Research and Sports Education. Paris: Atlantis Press, 2013; Vol. 39:86-8.
Gong 2009 {published data only}
  • Gong JC, Liu YD, Zhao DM, Zhao ML. Taijishan effect on community indicators of blood lipid in middle aged and old women. Journal of Community Medicine 2009;7(17):34-5.
Hui 2009 {published data only}
  • Hui SSC, Woo J, Kwok T. Evaluation of energy expenditure and cardiovascular health effects from tai chi and walking exercise. Hong Kong Medical Journal 2009;15:S4-7.
Logghe 2009 {published data only}
Luo 2006 {published data only}
  • Luo H. Tai Chi combined with drug in treatment of essential hypertension: a clinical study. China Medical Herald 2006;3(33):43-4.
Sun 1996 {published data only}
  • Sun WY, Dosch M, Gilmore GD, Pemberton W, Scarseth T. Effects of a tai chi chuan program on Hmong American older adults. Educational Gerontology 1996;22:161-7.
Sun 2010 {published data only}
  • Sun QQ. Research on the effect of middle-aging and elderly high blood pressure patients quality of life by practice Taichi. Beijing Sport University 2010:1-62.
Thomas 2005 {published data only}
Tsai 2003 {published data only}
  • Tsai JC, Wang WH, Chan P, Lin LJ, Wang CH, Tomlinson B, et al. The beneficial effects of tai chi chuan on blood pressure and lipid profile and anxiety status in a randomised controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 2003;9(5):747-54.
Wang 2010 {published data only}
  • Wang XJ, Li YJ, Liu NN. Empirical study of taijiquan interventions on the prevention and cure of hypertension. Journal of Beijing Sport University 2011;34(9):75-7.
Wen 2005 {published data only}
  • Wen J, Kang YS. Tai chi breathing on BP, HR, EEG and mood in seniors with essential hypertension. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2005;37(5):S255.
Yang 2010 {published data only}
  • Yang Q, Fu RD. Study on antioxidant effect of taijiquan to the middle-aged and elderly women. Liaoning Sport Science and Technology 2010;32(4):38-9.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Barbat-Artigas 2011 {published data only}
  • Barbat-Artigas S, Filion ME, Dupontgand S,  Karelis AD,  Aubertin-Leheudre M. Effects of tai chi training in dynapenic and nondynapenic postmenopausal women. Menopause 2011;18(9):974-9.
Brown 1995 {published data only}
  • Brown DR, Wang Y, Ward A, Ebbeling CB, Fortlage L, Puleo E, et al. Chronic psychological effects of exercise and exercise plus cognitive strategies. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1995;27(5):765-75.
Frishman 2009 {published data only}
  • Frishman WH, Beravol P,  Carosella C. Alternative and complementary medicine for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. Disease-a-Month 2009;55(3):121-92.
Gemmell 2006 {published data only}
Jin 1992 {published data only}
  • Jin P. Efficacy of tai chi, brisk walking, meditation, and reading in reducing mental and emotional stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1991;36(4):361-70.
Li 2012 {published data only}
  • Li F, Harmer P, Fitzgerald K,  Eckstrom E,  Stock R,  Galver J, et al. Tai chi and postural stability in patients with Parkinson's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 2012;366(6):511-9.
Mao 2006 {published data only}
  • Mao HN, Sha P. Effect of tai chi exercise on blood pressure, plasma nitrogen monoxidum and endothelin in hypertensive patients. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2006;10(48):65-7.
Nedelijkovic 2012 {published data only}
  • Nedeljkovic M, Ausfeld-Hafter B, Streitberger K,  Seiler R,  Wirtz PH. Taiji practice attenuates psychobiological stress reactivity - a randomized controlled trial in healthy subjects. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012;37(8):1171-80.
Sattin 2005 {published data only}
Song 2003 {published data only}
  • Song R, Lee, EO, Lam P,  Bae SC. Effects of tai chi exercise on pain, balance, muscle strength, and perceived difficulties in physical functioning in older women with osteoarthritis: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Rheumatology 2003;30(9):2039-44.
Thumwaree 2011 {published data only}
  • Thumwaree B, Nana A, Limroongreungrat W, Laksanakorn W. Effects of 8-week wheelchair tai chi training on cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with spinal cord injury. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2011;14:e109.
Wayne 2010 {published data only}
  • Wayne PM, Buring JE, Davis RB,  Connors EM,  Bonato P,  Patritti B, et al. Tai chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2010;11(40):1-14.
Wu 2010 {published data only}
  • Wu G, Keyes L, Callas P,  Ren X,  Bookchin B. Comparison of telecommunication, community, and home-based tai chi exercise programs on compliance and effectiveness in elders at risk for falls. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2010;91(6):849-56.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Lee 2004 {published data only}
  • Lee EN. The effects of tai chi exercise program on blood pressure, total cholesterol and cortisol level in patients with essential hypertension. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2004;34:829-37.
Lu 2012 {published data only}
  • Lu WA, Kuo CD. Effect of 3-month tai chi chuan on heart rate variability, blood lipid and cytokine profiles in middle-aged and elderly individuals. International Journal of Gerontology 2012;6:267-72.
Rosardo-Pérez 2012 {published data only}
  • Rosado-Pérez J, Santiago-Osorio E, Ortiz R, Mendoza-Núñez VM. Tai chi diminishes oxidative stress in Mexican older adults. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging 2012;16:642-6.
Si 2006 {published data only}
  • Si CJ. The effect of taijiquan exercise on the constitution of mid and old age people. Journal of Liaoning Normal University (Natural Science Edition) 2006;29(3):379-81.
Zhang 1997 {published data only}
  • Zhang Q, Wei X, Zhao SY. The effect of Tai Chi on microcirculation system in elderly. Journal of Binzhou Medical College 1997;20(5):11.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Quilty 2011 {published data only}
  • NCT01340365. Tai chi, physiologic complexity, and healthy aging. clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01340365 (accessed 31 March 2014).
Robins 2011 {published data only}
  • NCT01467544. Reduce cardiovascular risk in women through tai chi intervention. clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01467544 (accessed 31 March 2014).
Zheng 2011 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611000810910. The effect of six weeks of tai ji practice on anxiety in healthy but stressed people compared to an exercise only comparison group. www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=343090 (accessed 31 March 2014).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
ACSM 2010
  • American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM's Resource Manual for Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription. 6th Edition. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2010.
AHA 2011
  • American Heart Association (AHA). Physical activity improves quality of life. www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/Physical Activity/StartWalking/Physical-activity-improves-quality-of-life_UCM_307977_Article.jsp (accessed 31 March 2014).
Bahrke 1978
Castillo-Richmond 2000
  • Castillo-Richmond A, Schneider RH, Alexander CN, Cook R, Myers H, Nidich S, et al. Effects of stress reduction on carotid atherosclerosis in hypertensive African Americans. Stroke 2000;31:568-73.
Dalusung-Angosta 2011
Duncan 2001
  • Duncan TE,  Duncan SC,  Chaumeton N,  Fisher KJ. An evaluation of the effects of tai chi exercise on physical function among older persons: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2001;23(2):139-46.
Egger 1997
Ernst 2008
  • Ernst E, Pittler MH, Wider B, Boddy K. Oxford Handbook of Complementary Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Frishman 2005
  • Frishman WH, Weintraub MI, Micozzi MS. Complementary and Integrative Therapies for Cardiovascular Disease. St Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby, 2005.
Han 2004
  • Han A, Judd M, Welch V, Wu T, Tugwell P, Wells GA. Tai Chi for treating rheumatoid arthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004849]
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hong 2008
  • Hong Y. Tai Chi Chuan: State of the Art in International Research. New York: Karger, 2008.
Lee 2007a
Lee 2007b
Lee 2008a
Lee 2008b
Lee 2010
Lefebvre 2011
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Li 2001a
  • Li Y. Fitness function and principles of tai chi. Journal of Liaoning College of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2001;3:82-3.
Li 2001b
Mittal 2008
  • Mittal S. The Metabolic Syndrome in Clinical Practice. London: Springer, 2008.
Nüesch 2010
  • Nüesch E, Trelle S, Reichenbach S, Rutjes AW, Tschannen B, Altman DG, et al. Small study effects in meta-analyses of osteoarthritis trials: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 2010;341:c3515.
Rainforth 2007
  • Rainforth MV,  Schneider RH,  Nidich SI,  Gaylord-King C,  Salerno JW,  Anderson JW. Stress reduction programs in patients with elevated blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports 2007;9(6):520-8.
Sterne 2000
Sterne 2001
Tsang 2008
  • Tsang T, Orr R, Lam P, Comino E, Singh MF. Effects of tai chi on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in older adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomised double-blind sham-exercise -controlled trial. Age and Ageing 2008;37(1):64-71.
Tse 1991
  • Tse S,  Bailey DM. T'ai chi and postural control in the well elderly. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 1991;29:263-88.
USHHS 1996
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Verhagen 2004
WHO 2013
  • World Health Organization. Media centre: cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/index.html (accessed 31 March 2014).
Wolf 1996
  • Wolf SL. Reducing frailty and falls in older persons: an investigation of tai chi and computerized balance training. Atlanta FICSIT Group. Frailty and injuries: cooperative studies of intervention techniques. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 1996;44(5):498-506.
Yeh 2008
Yeh 2009
  • Yeh GY, Wang C, Wayne PM, Phillips R. Tai chi exercise for patients with cardiovascular conditions and risk factors: a systematic review. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention 2009;29:152-60.
Zhou 1984
  • Zhou D, Shephard RJ, Phyley MJ, Davis GM. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses during tai chi chuan exercise. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences 1984;9:7-10.
Zhou 2012
  • Zhou J, Zhang L, Liu H, Mallampati T, Xu M, Yang J. Tai Chi for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009717]