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Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

  1. Stephen J Milan1,*,
  2. Anna Hart2,
  3. Mark Wilkinson3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Airways Group

Published Online: 23 OCT 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010391.pub2

How to Cite

Milan SJ, Hart A, Wilkinson M. Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD010391. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010391.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    St George's University of London, Population Health Sciences and Education, London, UK

  2. 2

    Lancaster University, Lancaster Medical School, Clinical Research Hub, Lancaster, Lancashire, UK

  3. 3

    University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Foundation Trust, Lancaster, UK

*Stephen J Milan, Population Health Sciences and Education, St George's University of London, London, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 23 OCT 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Anah 1980 {published data only}
Anderson 1983 {published data only}
Cohen 1997 {published data only}
Fogarty 2003 {published data only}
Kordansky 1979 {published data only}
Malo 1986 {published data only}
  • Malo JL, Cartier A, Pineau L, L'Archevêque J, Ghezzo H, Martin RR. Lack of acute effects of ascorbic acid on spirometry and airway responsiveness to histamine in subjects with asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1986;78(6):1153-8. []
Nadi 2012 {published data only}
  • Nadi E, Tavakoli F, Zeraati F, Goodarzi MT, Hashemi SH. Effect of vitamin C administration on leukocyte vitamin C. Acta Medica Iranica 2012;50(4):233-8. []
O'Sullivan 2000 {published data only}
  • O'Sullivan S, Doyle S, Cormican L, Gunaratnam C, Poulter LW, Burke CM. Attenuation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to histamine by vitamin C in asthmatic subjects [abstract]. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2000;161(3 Suppl):A106. []
Schachter 1982 {published data only}
Schertling 1990 {published data only}
  • Schertling M, Winsel K, Muller S, Henning RD, Meiske W, Slapke J. Action of ascorbic acid on clinical course of infection related bronchial asthma and on reactive oxygen metabolites by BAL cells [Einfluß von Ascorbinsäure auf den klinischen Verlaufdes infektbedingten Asthma bronchiale und die Bildung von reaktiven Sauerstoffmetabolitendurch BAL-Zellen]. Zeitschrift für Klinische Medizin 1990;45(20):1770-4. []
Tecklenburg 2007 {published data only}
  • Tecklenburg SL, Mickleborough TD, Fly AD, Bai Y, Stager JM. Ascorbic acid supplementation attenuates exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma. Respiratory Medicine 2007;101(8):1770-8. []

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Al-Biltagi {published data only}
  • Retraction. Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study. Acta Paediatrica 2012; Vol. 101, issue 8:891. []
  • Al-Biltagi MA, Baset AA, Bassiouny M, Kasrawi MA, Attia M. Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin C and Zn supplementation in asthmatic children: a randomized self-controlled study. Acta Paediatrica 2009;98(4):737-42. []
Aliyali 2010 {published data only}
  • Aliyali M, Poorhasan Amiri A, Sharifpoor A, Zalli F, Amiri AP. Effects of N-acetylcysteine on asthma exacerbation. Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology 2010;9(2):103-9. []
Bagnato 1999 {published data only}
  • Bagnato GF, Gulli S, De Pasquale R, Giacobbe O, Spatari G, Purello d'Ambrosio F. Effect of inhaled glutathione on airway response to 'fog' challenge in asthmatic patients. Respiration 1999;66(6):518-21. []
Baumann 2005 {published data only}
  • Baumann JM, Rundell KW, Evans TM, Levine AM. Effects of cysteine donor supplementation on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2005;37(9):1468-73. []
Bede 2008 {published data only}
  • Bede O, Nagy D, Surányi A, Horváth I, Szlávik M, Gyurkovits K. Effects of magnesium supplementation on the glutathione redox system in atopic asthmatic children. Inflammation Research 2008;57(6):279-86. []
Belousova 2006 {published data only}
  • Belousova CG, Geppe NA, Bolevich SB, Soodaeva SK, Climanov IA, Kolosova NG. Free radical status and antioxidant defense in children with asthma treated by inhaled corticosteroids combined with prolonged b2-agonist [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):483s [P2790]. []
Bernorio 1996 {published data only}
  • Bernorio S, Pecis M, Zucchi A, Guerra G, Migliorini V, Negri L, et al. Glutathione in bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 1996;9(2):207-13. []
Bime 2012 {published data only}
  • Bime C, Wei CY, Holbrook J, Smith LJ, Wise RA. Association of dietary soy genistein intake with lung function and asthma control: a post-hoc analysis of patients enrolled in a prospective multicentre clinical trial. Primary Care Respiratory Journal 2012;21(4):398-404. []
Cakmak 2004A {published data only}
  • Cakmak G, Demir T, Gemicioglu B, Aydemir A, Serdaroglu E, Donma O. The effects of add-on zafirlukast treatment to budesonide on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and serum levels of eosinophilic cationic protein and total antioxidant capacity in asthmatic patients. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 2004;204(4):249-56. []
Carlsten 2011 {published data only}
  • Carlsten C, Pui M, MacNutt M, DyBuncio A, Lay J, Alexis N. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on diesel exhaust (de)-associated changes in airway reactivity and innate immunity: a controlled crossover exposure study in humans [Abstract]. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011;183(Meeting Abstracts):A3279. []
Carlsten 2011a {published data only}
  • Carlsten C, Pui M, MacNutt M, Lay J, Alexis N. Antioxidant supplementation attenuates changes in innate immunity associated with diesel exhaust (DE) in the lung: A controlled crossover exposure study [Abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2011 Sep 24-28; Amsterdam. Amsterdam, 2011; Vol. 38, issue 55:611s [3443]. []
Chazan 1981 {published data only}
  • Chazan R, Droszcz W. Phagocytic activity of the peripheral blood granulocytes in patients treated with triamcinolone acetonide and vitamin C [Aktywnosc fagocytarna granulocytow krwi obwodowej osob leczonych acetonidem triamcinolonu, w trakcie stosowania witaminy C]. Pneumonologia Polska 1981;49(8-9):621-6. []
Covar 2010 {published data only}
Cristofalo 1999 {published data only}
  • Cristofalo MG, Savojardo M, Pecorella G, Galiano S, Lo Coco L, Parisi A, et al. The end of antioxiding treatment for pulmonary illness. Our experience [Ruolo degli antiossidanti nel danno polmonare. Nostre esperienze]. Medicina Dello Sport 1999;52(3):165-75. []
Cuomo 2004 {published data only}
  • Cuomo B, Fasoli L, Guerrea T, Cosettini M, Don M, Saretta F, et al. Efficacy of antioxidant supplementation diet in asthmatic children [abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(Suppl 48):167s. []
Daniliak 1995 {published data only}
  • Daniliak IG, Kogan AK, Bolevich S. Aevit and glutamic acid in the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma [Aevit i glutaminovaia kislota v lechenii bol'nykh bronkhial'noÄ­ astmoÄ­]. Klinicheskaia Meditsina 1995;73(5):50-3. []
Dauletbaev 2001 {published data only}
De Lucia 1991 {published data only}
  • De Lucia F, Bonavia M, Crimi E, Scaricabarozzi I, Brusasco V. Antiinflammatory-antioxidant treatment with a methane sulfonanilide in allergen-induced asthma. Annals of Allergy 1991;66(5):424-9. []
Dunstan 2007 {published data only}
  • Dunstan JA, Breckler L, Hale J, Lehmann H, Franklin P, Lyons G, et al. Supplementation with vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and selenium has no effect on anti-oxidant status and immune responses in allergic adults: A randomized controlled trial. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 2007;37(2):180-7. []
Echazarreta 2000 {published data only}
  • Echazarreta AL, Sala E, Rahman I, Peinado V, Barbera JA, Roca J, et al. Effects of platelet-activating factor challenge on oxidant/antioxidant balance and exhaled nitric oxide in asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2000;16(Suppl 31):266s. []
Echazarreta 2005 {published data only}
  • Echazarreta AL, Rahman I, Peinado V, Barberà JA, Roca J, MacNee W, et al. Lack of systemic oxidative stress during PAF challenge in mild asthma. Respiratory Medicine 2005;99(5):519-23. []
Ensom 2003 {published data only}
Falk 2005 {published data only}
  • Falk B, Gorev R, Zigel L, Ben-Amotz A, Neuman I. Effect of lycopene supplementation on lung function after exercise in young athletes who complain of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction symptoms. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 2005;94(4):480-5. []
Greenough 2010 {published data only}
  • Greenough A, Shaheen SO, Shennan A, Seed PT, Poston L. Respiratory outcomes in early childhood following antenatal vitamin C and E supplementation. Thorax 2010;65(11):998-1003. []
Gvozdjakova 2005 {published data only}
  • Gazdik F, Gazdikova K, Jahnova E, Pijak MR. Sparing effect of coenzyme Q10, a-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on the consumption of corticosteroids in allergic asthmatics [Abstract]. Allergy & Clinical Immunology International 2003;1 Suppl:Abstract No: P-2-38. []
Gvozdjakova 2005b {published data only}
Gvozdjakova 2006 {published data only}
  • Gazdik F, Gvozdjakova A, Kucharska J, Kucharikova Z, Jahnova E, Gazdikova K. Coenzyme Q(10) supplementary therapy decreased corticoid consumption in patients with bronchial asthma. Advances in Immunopathology & Respiratory Allergy 2006;13(1):29-33. []
Hernandez 2009 {published data only}
  • Hernandez M, Zhou H, Zhou B, Robinette C, Crissman K, Hatch G, et al. Combination treatment with high-dose vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol does not enhance respiratory-tract lining fluid vitamin C levels in asthmatics. Inhalation Toxicology 2009;21(3):173-81. []
Hosseini 2001 {published data only}
  • Hosseini S, Pishnamazi S, Sadrzadeh SMH, Farid F, Farid R, Watson RR. Pycnogenol in the management of asthma. Journal of Medicinal Food 2001;4(4):201-9. []
Houdard 1969 {published data only}
  • Houdard YP. Trial of cortibucline. Marseille Medical 1969;106(11):993-7. []
Jabbari 2005 {published data only}
  • Jabbari Azad F, Rafatpanah H, Farid R, Watson R, Hosseini S, Tavallei A, et al. Phycnogenol in the management of asthma [Abstract]. XIX World Allergy Organization Congress, June 26-July 1, Munich, Germany 2005:Abstract 268. []
Jahnova 2002 {published data only}
  • Jahnova E, Horvathova M, Gazdik F, Weissova S. Effects of selenium supplementation on expression of adhesion molecules in corticoid-dependent asthmatics. Bratislavske Lekarske Listy 2002;103(1):12-6. []
Kiss 2000 {published data only}
  • Kiss A, Horvath IM, Chung KF, Barnes PJ, Horvath IM, Chung KF. Vitamin C and E supplementation in mild asthma - assessment by non-invasive methods. European Respiratory Journal 2000;16(Suppl 31):40s. []
Kligler 2011 {published data only}
  • Kligler B, Homel P, Blank AE, Kenney J, Levenson H, Merrell W. Randomized trial of the effect of an integrative medicine approach to the management of asthma in adults on disease-related quality of life and pulmonary function. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2011;17(1):10-5. []
Kolpakova 2007 {published data only}
  • Kolpakova AF. [Effects of combined therapy with domestic inhalational anti-asthmatic drugs on oxidant status of patients with bronchial asthma]. [Russian]. Terapevticheskii Arkhiv 2007;79(3):41-4. []
Kongerud 2003 {published data only}
Kriukov 2003 {published data only}
  • Kriukov EV, Novozhenov VG. Efficacy of antioxidants in the prophylaxis of respiratory diseases in young servicemen. Voenno-meditsinskii Zhurnal 2003;324(8):28-31. []
Kurth 2008 {published data only}
Labhe 2001 {published data only}
  • Labhe RU, Mani UV, Iyer UM, Mishra M, Jani K, Bhattacharya A. The effect of spirulina in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Journal of Nutraceuticals, Functional & Medical Foods 2001;3(4):53-61. []
Lau 2004 {published data only}
Lipman, 1964 {published data only}
Lisitsa 2007 {published data only}
  • Lisitsa AV, Soodaeva SK, Klimanov IA, Chuchalin AG. The dynamics of blood plasma antioxidant activity in patients with asthma exacerbation during the course of phosphogliv admission [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2007;30(Suppl 51):616s [P3618]. []
Liu 2003 {published data only}
  • Liu YL, Zhao X, Gong JQ, Hao XH. Efficacy of antioxidants in treatment of asthma. Acta Acadumiae Medicinae CPAPF 2003;14(6):342-3. []
Ma 2013 {published data only}
  • Ma J, Strub P, Lavori PW, Buist AS, Camargo CA, Nadeau KC, et al. DASH for asthma: A pilot study of the DASH diet in not-well-controlled adult asthma. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2013;35(2):55-67. []
Medvedeva 2002 {published data only}
  • Medvedeva IV, Lapik SV, Gur'eva SA, Savina IA. Clinical and biochemical aspects of flixotide administration in patients with moderate bronchial asthma. Terapevticheskii Arkhiv 2002;74(3):21-5. []
Mohsenin 1983 {published data only}
  • Mohsenin V, Dubois AB, Douglas JS. Effect of ascorbic acid on response to methacholine challenge in asthmatic subjects. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1983;127(3):143-7. []
Murphy 2002 {published data only}
  • Murphy JD, Ferguson CS, Brown KR, Harms CA. The effect of dietary antioxidants on lung function in exercise induced asthmatics [Abstract]. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2002;34(5 Suppl 1):S155. []
Neuman 1999 {published data only}
Neuman 2000 {published data only}
Nikitin 1993 {published data only}
  • Nikitin AV, Kashin AV, Karpukhina EP. Correction of antioxidant defense in patients with bronchial asthma by the method of intravascular laser irradiation [Korrektsiia antioksidantnoi zashchity u bol'nykh bronkhial'noi astmoi metodom endovaskuliarnogo lazernogo oblucheniia]. Problemy Tuberkuleza 1993;1993(3):46-7. []
Olekhnovich 1982 {published data only}
  • Olekhnovich VM, Krylov VI, Sorogin VP, Zhogin SV. Therapeutic effectiveness of antioxidants in complex treatment of bronchial asthma in children [Terapevticheskaia effektivnost' antioksidantov v kompleksnom lechenii bronkhial'noi astmy u detei]. Pediatriia 1982;2:34-5. []
Onur 2011 {published data only}
  • Onur E, Kabaroğlu C, Gunay T, Var A, Yilmaz T, Dündar P, et al. The beneficial effects of physical exercise on antioxidant status in asthmatic children. Allergologia et Immunopathologia 2011;39(2):90-5. []
Panahi 2012 {published data only}
  • Panahi Y, Tavana S, Sahebkar A, Masoudi H, Madanchi N. Impact of adjunctive therapy with Chlorella vulgaris extract. Scientia Pharmaceutica 2012;80(3):719-30. []
Panina 2002 {published data only}
  • Panina NT, Yakovleva NG, Kotenko TV, Danilov LN, Panina NT, Yakovleva NG, et al. Role of antioxidant and trace element complex in outpatient care of bronchial asthma [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2002;20(Suppl 38):52s. []
Pearson 2004 {published data only}
Peden 2005 {published data only}
  • Peden DB. The role of vitamins E and C in maintaining lung health in people with asthma. 2005. []
Pennings 1999 {published data only}
  • Pennings HJ, Borm PJ, Evelo CT, Wouters EF. Changes in levels of catalase and glutathione in erythrocytes of patients with stable asthma, treated with beclomethasone dipropionate. European Respiratory Journal 1999;13(6):1260-6. []
Peters 2001 {published data only}
Prieto 1988 {published data only}
  • Prieto L, Juyol M, Paricio A, Martínez MA, Palop J, Castro J. Oral challenge test with sodium metabisulfite in steroid-dependent asthmatic patients. Allergologia et Immunopathologia 1988;16(6):393-6. []
Ratanamaneechat 2010 {published data only}
  • Ratanamaneechat S, George D, Kham A, Baran J, Nagle K, Naples R, et al. Serum superoxide dismutase activity as a predictor of adverse events after H1N1 vaccination [Abstract]. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010;181(Meeting Abstracts):A6791. []
Romieu 1998 {published data only}
  • Romieu I, Meneses F, Ramirez M, Gerber M, Dekker D, Walda I, et al. Acute effect of ozone on respiratory function among participant in a randomized trial of antioxidant supplementation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157(3 Suppl):A48. []
Romieu 2001 {published data only}
  • Romieu I, Sienra Monge JJ, Ramirez M, Reyes Ruiz NI, del Rio Navarro BE, Ruiz Navarro MX, et al. Impact of antioxidant supplementation on the respiratory health of asthmatic children exposed to high levels of particulate and ozone in Mexico City. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001;163(5 Suppl):A40. []
Romieu 2002 {published data only}
  • Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramírez-Aguilar M, Téllez-Rojo MM, Moreno-Macías H, Reyes-Ruiz NI, et al. Antioxidant supplementation and lung functions among children with asthma exposed to high levels of air pollutants. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;166(5):703-9. []
Romieu 2002a {published data only}
  • Romieu I, Sienra-Monge J, Ramirez M, Moreno-Macias H, del Rio-Navarro B, Ruiz-Navarro M, et al. Impact of antioxidant supplementation in the inflammatory response in asthmatic children exposed to high levels of ozone in Mexico City [abstract]. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(8 Suppl):A437. []
Romieu 2003 {published data only}
  • Ramirez M, Morena H, Sienra JJ, Reyes N, Del Rio BE, Hatch G, et al. Modulation of air pollution impact on peak expiratory flow by serum levels of a-tocopherol and ascorbic acid among asthmatic children in Mexico City [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference 2003:B091 Poster 917. []
Romieu 2003a {published data only}
  • Romieu I, Sienra JJ, Ramirez M, Moreno H, Reyes NI, Del Rio BE, et al. Antioxidant supplementation and generic susceptibility to ozone: a randomized controlled trial of children with asthma [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference 2003:C014. []
Romieu 2004 {published data only}
  • Romieu I, Sienra JJ, Ramirez M, Moreno H, Del Rio BE, Hatch G, et al. Antioxidant supplementation and inflammatory responses among young asthmatics exposed to high levels of air pollutants [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004; Vol. 24, issue Suppl 48:623s. []
Romieu 2004a {published data only}
  • Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Moreno-Macias H, Reyes-Ruiz NI, Del Rio-Navarro BE. Incidence of wheezing and genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 among asthmatic children supplemented with antioxidants in Mexico City [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference, May 21-26, 2004, Orlando 2004:C24 Poster 701. []
Romieu 2004b {published data only}
  • Romieu I, Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramírez-Aguilar M, Moreno-Macías H, Reyes-Ruiz NI, Estela del Río-Navarro B, et al. Genetic polymorphism of GSTM1 and antioxidant supplementation influence lung function in relation to ozone exposure in asthmatic children in Mexico City. [see comment]. Thorax 2004; Vol. 59, issue 1:8-10. []
Romieu 2004c {published data only}
  • Sienra-Monge JJ, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Moreno-Macias H, Reyes-Ruiz NI, Del Río-Navarro BE, Ruiz-Navarro MX, et al. Antioxidant supplementation and nasal inflammatory responses among young asthmatics exposed to high levels of ozone. Clinical and Experimental Immunology 2004;138(2):317-22. []
Shaheen 2007 {published data only}
  • Shaheen SO, Newson RB, Rayman MP, Wong AP, Tumilty MK, Phillips JM, et al. Randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial of selenium supplementation in adult asthma. Thorax 2007;62(6):483-90. []
Shimizu 1996 {published data only}
  • Shimizu T, Maeda S, Arakawa H, Mochizuki H, Tokuyama K, Morikawa A. Relation between theophylline and circulating vitamin levels in children with asthma. Pharmacology 1996;53(6):384-9. []
Smith 2004 {published data only}
  • Smith LJ, Holbrook JT, Wise R, Blumenthal M, Dozor AJ, Mastronarde J, et al. Dietary intake of soy genistein is associated with lung function in patients with asthma. Journal of Asthma 2004;41(8):833-43. []
Szlagatys 2005 {published data only}
  • Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz A, Korzon M, Malaczynska T, Renkel J, Popadiuk S, Woźniak M. The antioxidative-prooxidative balance in children with asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids and long acting beta2-agonists [Rownowaga antyoksydacyjno-prooksydacyjna u dzieci z astma leczonych kortykosteroidami wziewnymi i dlugo dzialajacymi beta2-mimetykami]. Pneumonologia I Alergologia Polska 2005;73(2):178-81. []
Ting 1983 {published data only}
Trenca 2001 {published data only}
  • Trenca CA, Koenig JQ, Williams PV. Dietary antioxidants and ozone-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adults with asthma. Archives of Environmental Health 2001;56(3):242-9. []
Tug 2007 {published data only}
  • Tug T, Godekmerdan A, Sari N, Karatas F, Erdem ES. Effects of supportive treatment such as antioxidant or leukotriene receptor antagonist drugs on inflammatory and respiratory parameters in asthma patients. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2007;81(3):371-6. []
Tunnicliffe 2003 {published data only}
  • Tunnicliffe WS, Harrison RM, Kelly FJ, Dunster C, Ayres JG. The effect of sulphurous air pollutant exposures on symptoms, lung function, exhaled nitric oxide, and nasal epithelial lining fluid antioxidant concentrations in normal and asthmatic adults. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2003;60(11):e15. []
Varshavskii 2003 {published data only}
  • Varshavskii BIa, Trubnikov GV, Galaktipmpva LP, Koreniak NA, Koledeznaia IL, Oberemok AN. Oxidant-antioxidant status of patients with bronchial asthma during inhalation and systemic glucocorticoid therapy [Russian] [Oksidantno-antioksidantnyi status bol'nykh bronkhial'noi astmoi pri ingaliatsionnoi u sustenbii gkuyjijirtujiudbii terapii]. Terapevticheskii Arkhiv 2003;75(3):21-4. []
Vazquez-Armenta 2012 {published data only}
  • Vazquez-Armenta G, Barragan-Alvarez C, Loza-Valdes A, Ramos-Marquez ME, Siller-Lopez F. Protein carbonyl and sputum eosinophil number decrease with alpha-lipoic acid adjuvant therapy in asthma patients [Abstract]. Free Radical Biology & Medicine 2012;53(Suppl 2):S117. []
Voelker 1997 {published data only}
  • Voelker R. Antioxidants and asthma. JAMA 1997;277(24):1926. []
Voitsekhovskaia 2007 {published data only}
  • Voitsekhovskaia IuG, Skesters A, Orlikov GA, Silova AA, Rusakova NE, Larmane LT, et al. Assessment of some oxidative stress parameters in bronchial asthma patients beyond add-on selenium supplementation. [Russian]. Biomeditsinskaia Khimiia 2007;53(5):577-84. []
Wood 2007 {published data only}
  • Wood LG, Garg ML, Powell H, Gibson PG. Dietary lycopene reduces neutrophilic airway inflammation in asthma [Abstract]. Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand Annual Scientific Meeting, 25-28 March 2007, Auckland. 2007:Abstract TP002. []
Wood 2008 {published data only}
Wood 2012 {published data only}
  • Wood LG, Garg ML, Smart J, Scott HA, Barker D, Gibson PG. Manipulating antioxidant intake in asthma: A randomized clinical trial [Abstract]. Respirology 2012;17(Suppl 1):45. []
Wood 2012a {published data only}
  • Wood LG, Garg ML, Smart JM, Scott HA, Barker D, Gibson PG. Manipulating antioxidant intake in asthma: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012;96(3):534-43. []
Yamamoto 2013 {published data only}
  • Yamamoto M, Singh A, Sava F, Pui M, Tebbutt SJ, Carlsten C. MicroRNA expression in response to controlled exposure to diesel exhaust: Attenuation by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine in a randomized crossover study. Environmental Health Perspectives 2013;121(6):670-5. []

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
IRCT138904224359N1 {published data only}
  • Effect of vitamin E and C supplements on improving asthma. Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials 2010. [URL:]
NCT01057615 {published data only}
  • Effect of fish oil and vitamin C on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation in asthma. 2011. [URL:]

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
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Blanck 2008
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CDC 2012
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