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The effect of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services on patient outcomes, health service utilisation and costs in low- and middle-income countries

  1. Sami Pande1,*,
  2. Janet E Hiller2,
  3. Nancy Nkansah3,
  4. Lisa Bero4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 1 SEP 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010398

How to Cite

Pande S, Hiller JE, Nkansah N, Bero L. The effect of pharmacist-provided non-dispensing services on patient outcomes, health service utilisation and costs in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD010398. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010398.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia

  2. 2

    Australian Catholic University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Fitzroy, VICTORIA, Australia

  3. 3

    University of California, San Francisco, Clinical Pharmacy, Fresno, California, USA

  4. 4

    University of California San Francisco, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Institute for Health Policy Studies, San Francisco, California, USA

*Sami Pande, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abdelhamid 2008 {published data only}
  • Abdelhamid E, Awad A, Gismallah A. Evaluation of a hospital pharmacy-based pharmaceutical care services for asthma patients. Pharmacy Practice 2008, issue 1:25-32.
Adepu 2007 {published data only}
  • Adepu R, Rasheed A, Nagavi B. Effect of patient counseling on quality of life in type-2 diabetes mellitus patients in two selected South Indian community pharmacies: A study. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2007; Vol. 69, issue 4:519-24.
Arun 2008 {published data only}
  • Arun K, Murugan R, Kanna M, Rajalakshmi S, Kalaiselvi R, Komathi V. The impact of pharmaceutical care on the clinical outcome of diabetes mellitus among a rural patient population. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries 2008; Vol. 28, issue 1:15-8.
Ebid 2006 {published data only}
  • Ebid AH, Abdel-Wahab E. Bronchial asthma and COPD: Impact of pharmaceutical care on outcomes and quality of life in Egyptian patients. Bulletin of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2006; Vol. 29, issue Part 1:167-85.
Gonzalez-Martin 2003 {published data only}
  • Gonzalez-Martin G, Joo I, Sanchez I. Evaluation of the impact of a pharmaceutical care program in children with asthma. Patient Education and Counseling. 2003/01/16 2003; Vol. 49, issue 1:13-8. [0738-3991: (Print)]
Lugo 2007 {published data only}
  • Lugo De Ortellado G, de Bittner MR, Chavez H, Perez S. Implementation of a pharmaceutical care program for the detection of hypertension and drug therapy to be followed up in community pharmacies. Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense 2007; Vol. 26, issue 4:590-5.
Paulos 2005 {published data only}
  • Paulos CP, Nygren CE, Celedon C, Carcamo CA. Impact of a pharmaceutical care program in a community pharmacy on patients with dyslipidemia. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2005/04/14 2005; Vol. 39, issue 5:939-43. [1060-0280: (Print)]
Petkova 2008 {published data only}
  • Petkova VB. Pharmaceutical care for asthma patients: A community pharmacy-based pilot project. Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 2008; Vol. 29, issue 1:55-61.
Petkova 2009 {published data only}
  • Petkova VB. Education for arthritis patients: A community pharmacy based pilot project. Pharmacy Practice 2009; Vol. 7, issue 2:88-93.
Sookaneknun 2004 {published data only}
  • Sookaneknun P, Richards RM, Sanguansermsri J, Teerasut C. Pharmacist involvement in primary care improves hypertensive patient clinical outcomes. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2004, issue 12:2023-8.
Suppapitiporn 2005 {published data only}
  • Suppapitiporn S, Chindavijak B, Onsanit S. Effect of diabetes drug counseling by pharmacist, diabetic disease booklet and special medication containers on glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2006/04/21 2005; Vol. 88 Suppl 4:S134-41. [0125-2208: (Print)]
Zwarenstein 2007 {published data only}
  • Zwarenstein M, Bheekie A, Lombard C, Swingler G, Ehrlich R, Eccles M, et al. Educational outreach to general practitioners reduces children's asthma symptoms: A cluster randomised controlled trial. Implementation Science 2007; Vol. 2:30.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abu 2009 {published data only}
  • Abu Rumman K, Ottmani S, Abu Sabra N, Baghdadi S, Seita A, Blanc L. Training on the practical approach to lung health: effect on drug prescribing in PHC settings in Jordan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2009/05/28 2009; Vol. 15, issue 1:111-21. [1020-3397: (Print)]
Aguwa 2008 {published data only}
  • Aguwa CN, Ukwe CV, Ekwunife OI. Effect of pharmaceutical care programme on blood pressure and quality of life in a Nigerian pharmacy. Pharmacy World & Science. 2007/08/19 2008; Vol. 30, issue 1:107-10. [0928-1231: (Print)]
Agyepong 2002 {published data only}
  • Agyepong IA, Ansah E, Gyapong M, Adjei S, Barnish G, Evans D. Strategies to improve adherence to recommended chloroquine treatment regimes: a quasi-experiment in the context of integrated primary health care delivery in Ghana. Social Science & Medicine. 2002/11/01 2002; Vol. 55, issue 12:2215-26. [0277-9536: (Print)]
Akoria 2008 {published data only}
  • Akoria OA, Isah AO. Prescription writing in public and private hospitals in Benin City, Nigeria: the effects of an educational intervention. The Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2008/07/22 2008; Vol. 15, issue 2:e295-305. [1710-6222: (Electronic)]
Alam 2007 {published data only}
  • Alam K, Palaian S, Shankar RP, Bista D, Mishra P, Prabhu MM. Role of pharmacist in counseling asthma patients. Pharmacy Times 2007; Vol. 39, issue 6:13-8.
Anderson 2004 {published data only}
  • Anderson RJ. Cost analysis of a managed care decentralized outpatient pharmacy anticoagulation service. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy 2004; Vol. 10, issue 2:159-65.
Angalakuditi 2003 {published data only}
  • Angalakuditi MV, Sunderland VB. Liquid medication dosing errors: A pre-post time series in India. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2003; Vol. 11, issue 2:105-10.
Angunawela, 1991 {published data only}
  • Angunawela II, Diwan VK, Tomson G. Experimental evaluation of the effects of drug information on antibiotic prescribing: a study in outpatient care in an area of Sri Lanka. International Journal of Epidemiology. 1991/06/01 1991; Vol. 20, issue 2:558-64. [0300-5771: (Print)]
Aramwit 2003 {published data only}
  • Aramwit P, Assawawitoontip S. Evaluation of patient counseling on blood pressure control of out-patients with hypertension at Chulalongkorn Hospital. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2003; Vol. 86 Suppl 2:496-500.
Armando 2001 {published data only}
  • Armando PD, Semería N, Tenllado MI, Sola N. Dáder program in Argentina: Results of the first trimester activities. Pharmaceutical Care Espana 2001; Vol. 3, issue 3:196-203.
Armando 2005 {published data only}
  • Armando P, Semería N, Tenllado M, Sola N. Pharmacotherapeutic follow-up of patients in community pharmacies. Seguimiento Farmacoterapéutico de Pacientes en Farmacias Comunitarias 2005; Vol. 36, issue 3:129-34.
Awad 2006 {published data only}
  • Awad AI, Eltayeb IB, Baraka OZ. Changing antibiotics prescribing practices in health centers of Khartoum State, Sudan. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2006/01/04 2006; Vol. 62, issue 2:135-42. [0031-6970: (Print)]
Beaton 2004 {published data only}
  • Beaton SJ, Nag SS, Gunter MJ, Gleeson JM, Sajjan SS, Alexander CM. Adequacy of glycemic, lipid, and blood pressure management for patients with diabetes in a managed care setting. Diabetes Care 2004; Vol. 27, issue 3:694-8.
Birrell 2000 {published data only}
  • Birrell G, Birrell KG. Assessment of a 1-year teaching programme in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Lancet. 2000/09/29 2000; Vol. 356, issue 9235:1084. [0140-6736: (Print)]
Botha 1992 {published data only}
  • Botha JH, Tyrannes I, Miller R, Wesley AG. Pharmacokinetic consultation program in a pediatric asthma clinic. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1992; Vol. 49, issue 8:1936-40.
Brimkulov 2009 {published data only}
  • Brimkulov N, Ottmani SE, Pio A, Chubakov T, Sultanova A, Davletalieva N, et al. Feasibility test results of the Practical Approach to Lung Health in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. 2009/04/02 2009; Vol. 13, issue 4:533-9. [1027-3719: (Print)]
Castro-Rios 2008 {published data only}
  • Castro-Rios A, Reyes-Morales H, Perez-Cuevas R. [An evaluation of a continuing medical education program for primary care services in the prescription of hypoglycemic agents in diabetes mellitus type 2]. Salud Publica de Mexico. 2008/12/17 2008; Vol. 50 Suppl 4:S445-52. [1606-7916: (Electronic)]
Chaikoolvatana 2006 {published data only}
  • Chaikoolvatana A, Chanakit T, Juengrakpong A. The evaluation of a recurrent Adverse Drug Reaction Prevention Program in the north-east region of Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 2006/06/08 2006; Vol. 89, issue 5:699-705. [0125-2208: (Print)]
Chaiyakunapruk 2006 {published data only}
  • Chaiyakunapruk N, Laowakul A, Karnchanarat S, Pikulthong N, Ongphiphadhanakul B. Community pharmacy-based implementation and evaluation of an osteoporosis self-assessment tool for Asians. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 2006/06/03 2006; Vol. 46, issue 3:391-6. [1544-3191: (Print)]
De Andrade 2009 {published data only}
  • De Andrade TU, Burini DM, Mello MDO, Bersácula NDS, Saliba RAD, Bravim FT, et al. Evaluation of the satisfaction level of patients attended by a pharmaceutical care program in a private communitarian pharmacy in Vitória (ES, Brazil). Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas/Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2009; Vol. 45, issue 2:349-55.
De Lyra 2008 {published data only}
  • De Lyra Jr DP, Marcellini PS, Pelá IR. Effect of pharmaceutical care intervention on blood pressure of elderly outpatients with hypertension. Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas/Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2008; Vol. 44, issue 3:451-7.
De Souza 2007 {published data only}
  • De Souza WA, Yugar-Toledo JC, Bergsten-Mendes G, Sabha M, Moreno Jr H. Effect of pharmaceutical care on blood pressure control and health-related quality of life in patients with resistant hypertension. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2007; Vol. 64, issue 18:1955-61.
Domecq 1991 {published data only}
  • Domecq C, Apud P, Paulos C. Evaluation of an educational program on ambulatory patients consuming histamine H2-receptor antagonists. Acta Farmaceutica Bonaerense 1991; Vol. 10, issue May-Aug:97-104.
Dowse 2001 {published data only}
  • Dowse R, Ehlers MS. The evaluation of pharmaceutical pictograms in a low-literate South African population. Patient Education and Counseling 2001; Vol. 45, issue 2:87-99.
Dowse 2005 {published data only}
  • Dowse R, Ehlers M. Medicine labels incorporating pictograms: do they influence understanding and adherence?. Patient Education and Counseling. 2005/06/14 2005; Vol. 58, issue 1:63-70. [0738-3991: (Print)]
Dubey 2006 {published data only}
  • Dubey AK, Palaian S, Shankar PR, Mishra P, Prabhu M, Bhandari RB, et al. Introduction to medication errors and the error prevention initiatives in a teaching hospital in Western Nepal. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2006; Vol. 19, issue 3:244-51.
Eltayeb 2005 {published data only}
  • Eltayeb IB, Awad AI, Mohamed-Salih MS, Daffa-Alla MA, Ahmed MB, Ogail MA, et al. Changing the prescribing patterns of sexually transmitted infections in the White Nile Region of Sudan. Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2005/10/04 2005; Vol. 81, issue 5:426-7. [1368-4973: (Print)]
Erhun 2005 {published data only}
  • Erhun WO, Agbani EO, Bolaji EE. Positive benefits of a pharmacist-managed hypertension clinic in Nigeria. Public Health 2005, issue 9:792-8.
Esmaily 2009 {published data only}
  • Esmaily HM, Savage C, Vahidi R, Amini A, Dastgiri S, Hult H, et al. Does an outcome-based approach to continuing medical education improve physicians' competences in rational prescribing?. Medical Teacher. 2009/11/17 2009; Vol. 31, issue 11:e500-6. [1466-187X: (Electronic)]
Garjani 2009 {published data only}
  • Garjani A, Salimnejad M, Shamsmohamadi M, Baghchevan V, Vahidi RG, Maleki-Dijazi N, et al. Effect of interactive group discussion among physicians to promote rational prescribing. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2009/06/27 2009; Vol. 15, issue 2:408-15. [1020-3397: (Print)]
Gonzalez 1996a {published data only}
  • Gonzalez Ochoa E, Armas Perez L, Bravo Gonzalez JR, Cabrales Escobar J, Rosales Corrales R, Abreu Suarez G. Prescription of antibiotics for mild acute respiratory infections in children. Bulletin of the Pan American Health Organization. 1996/06/01 1996; Vol. 30, issue 2:106-17. [0085-4638: (Print)]
Greenberg 2005 {published data only}
  • Greenberg HM, Galyavich AS, Ziganshina LE, Tinchurina MR, Chamidullin AG, Farmer RG. Identification and management of patients with hypertension in the polyclinic system of the Russian Federation. American Journal of Hypertension 2005; Vol. 18, issue 7:943-8.
Gupta 2005 {published data only}
  • Gupta U, Sharma S, Sheth PD, Jha J, Chaudhury RR. Improving medicine usage through patient information leaflets in India. Tropical Doctor. 2005/08/18 2005; Vol. 35, issue 3:164-6. [0049-4755: (Print)]
Gutierrez 1994 {published data only}
  • Gutierrez G, Guiscafre H, Bronfman M, Walsh J, Martinez H, Munoz O. Changing physician prescribing patterns: evaluation of an educational strategy for acute diarrhea in Mexico City. Medical Care. 1994/05/01 1994; Vol. 32, issue 5:436-46. [0025-7079: (Print)]
Jing 2009 {published data only}
  • Jing YS, Lai PSM, Siew SC, Siew PC. The impact of pharmacist intervention on the use of activated vitamin D in a tertiary referral hospital in Malaysia. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2009; Vol. 17, issue 5:305-11.
Lyra 2007 {published data only}
  • Lyra DP Jr, Rocha CE, Abriata JP, Gimenes FR, Gonzalez MM, et al. Influence of Pharmaceutical Care intervention and communication skills on the improvement of pharmacotherapeutic outcomes with elderly Brazilian outpatients. Patient Education and Counseling. 2007/08/19 2007; Vol. 68, issue 2:186-92. [0738-3991: (Print)]
Mao 2008 {published data only}
  • Mao Y, Zhang Y, Zhai S. Mobile phone text messaging for pharmaceutical care in a hospital in China. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare 2008; Vol. 14, issue 8:410-4.
Me'emary 2009 {published data only}
  • Me'emary F, Ottmani SE, Pio A, Baghdadi S, Assafin G, Koraym M, et al. Results of the feasibility test of the Practical Approach to Lung Health in the Syrian Arab Republic. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2009/09/08 2009; Vol. 15, issue 3:504-15. [1020-3397: (Print)]
Meyer 2001 {published data only}
  • Meyer JC, Summers RS, Moller H. Randomized, controlled trial of prescribing training in a South African province. Medical Education. 2001/09/14 2001; Vol. 35, issue 9:833-40. [0308-0110: (Print)]
Mohagheghi 2005 {published data only}
  • Mohagheghi MA, Mosavi-Jarrahi A, Khatemi-Moghaddam M, Afhami S, Khodai S, Azemoodeh O. Community-based outpatient practice of antibiotics use in Tehran. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 2005/01/05 2005; Vol. 14, issue 2:135-8. [1053-8569: (Print)]
Nascimento 2009 {published data only}
  • Nascimento YDA, Carvalho WDS, Acurcio FDA. Drug-related problems observed in a pharmaceutical care service, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ciencias Farmaceuticas/Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2009; Vol. 45, issue 2:321-30.
Ngoh 1997 {published data only}
  • Ngoh LN, Shepherd MD. Design, development, and evaluation of visual aids for communicating prescription drug instructions to nonliterate patients in rural Cameroon. Patient Education and Counseling. 1997/03/01 1997; Vol. 30, issue 3:257-70. [0738-3991: (Print)]
Odusanya 2004 {published data only}
  • Odusanya OO, Oyediran MA. The effect of an educational intervention on improving rational drug use. The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal 2004; Vol. 11, issue 2:126-31.
Ofori-Adjei 1996 {published data only}
  • Ofori-Adjei D, Arhinful DK. Effect of training on the clinical management of malaria by medical assistants in Ghana. Social Science & Medicine. 1996/04/01 1996; Vol. 42, issue 8:1169-76. [0277-9536: (Print)]
Oparah 2006 {published data only}
  • Oparah AC, Adje DU, Enato EFO. Outcomes of pharmaceutical care intervention to hypertensive patients in a Nigerian community pharmacy. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2006; Vol. 14, issue 2:115-22.
Osiri 2001 {published data only}
  • Osiri S, Richards M. Primary care treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in NE Thailand by pharmacists and physicians. Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy 2001; Vol. 18, issue 6:232-8.
Pankonin 2008 {published data only}
  • Pankonin CA, Higgs P, Reid G, Aitken C. Selling syringes to injecting drug users: a study of five pharmacies in Hanoi, Vietnam. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries. 2008/01/01 2008; Vol. 2, issue 1:51-8. [1972-2680: (Electronic)]
Park 2007 {published data only}
  • Park JS, Ahn CW. Educational program for diabetic patients in Korea--multidisciplinary intensive management. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 2007/04/24 2007; Vol. 77 Suppl 1:S194-8. [0168-8227: (Print)]
Perera 1988 {published data only}
  • Perera UA, Angunawela I. Basic drug information to patients attending medical clinics of a teaching hospital. The Ceylon Medical Journal. 1988/03/01 1988; Vol. 33, issue 1:27-9. [0009-0875: (Print)]
Perez 2003 {published data only}
  • Perez A, Dennis RJ, Rodriguez B, Castro AY, Delgado V, Lozano JM, et al. An interrupted time series analysis of parenteral antibiotic use in Colombia. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. 2003/10/22 2003; Vol. 56, issue 10:1013-20. [0895-4356: (Print)]
Perez-Cuevas 1996 {published data only}
  • Perez-Cuevas R, Guiscafre H, Munoz O, Reyes H, Tome P, Libreros V, et al. Improving physician prescribing patterns to treat rhinopharyngitis. Intervention strategies in two health systems of Mexico. Social Science & Medicine. 1996/04/01 1996; Vol. 42, issue 8:1185-94. [0277-9536: (Print)]
Petkova 2005 {published data only}
  • Petkova V. Evaluation of the impact of a pharmaceutical care program on patients with asthma. Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi 2005; Vol. 34, issue 4:251-62.
Petkova 2006 {published data only}
  • Petkova V, Ivanova A, Petrova G. Education of patients with diabetes in the community pharmacies (pilot project in Bulgaria). Ankara Universitesi Eczacilik Fakultesi Dergisi 2006; Vol. 35, issue 2:111-24.
Ratanajamit 2009 {published data only}
  • Ratanajamit C, Kaewpibal P, Setthawacharavanich S, Faroongsarng D. Effect of pharmacist participation in the health care team on therapeutic drug monitoring utilization for antiepileptic drugs. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2009; Vol. 92, issue 11:1500-7.
Rivera 2006 {published data only}
  • Rivera S, Lopez Orozco M. Design, implementation and assessment of a health education service on the correct use of drugs in a pediatric Mexican hospital. Diseño, Implementación y Evaluación de un Servicio de Educación Sanitaria Sobre el Uso Correcto de los Medicamentos en un Hospital Pediátrico Mexicano 2006; Vol. 4, issue 1:9-12.
Rosen 1978 {published data only}
  • Rosen CE, Copp WM, Holmes S. Effectiveness of a specially trained pharmacist in a rural community mental health center. Public Health Reports 1978; Vol. 93, issue 5:464-7.
Rosen 1978a {published data only}
  • Rosen CE, Holmes S. Pharmacist's impact on chronic psychiatric outpatients in community mental health. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. 1978/06/01 1978; Vol. 35, issue 6:704-8. [0002-9289: (Print)]
Santos 2006 {published data only}
  • Santos AC, Pereira DA, Da Silva OA, Lopes LC. Pharmacotherapeutic follow-up for patients with pulmonary tuberculosis with Dáder method. Seguimento Farmacoterapêutico em Pacientes com Tuberculose Pulmonar Através da Metodologia Dáder 2006; Vol. 27, issue 3:269-73.
Santoso 1996 {published data only}
  • Santoso B, Suryawati S, Prawaitasari JE. Small group intervention vs formal seminar for improving appropriate drug use. Social Science & Medicine. 1996/04/01 1996; Vol. 42, issue 8:1163-8. [0277-9536: (Print)]
Suryaprakasha 1983 {published data only}
  • Suryaprakasha Rao P. Hospital pharmacist in geriatric care. Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy 1983; Vol. 20, issue 6:229-34.
Turnacilar 2009 {published data only}
  • Turnacilar M, Sancar M, Apikoglu-Rabus S, Hursitoglu M, Izzettin FV. Improvement of diabetes indices of care by a short pharmaceutical care program. Pharmacy World and Science 2009; Vol. 31, issue 6:689-95.
Udomthavornsuk 1991 {published data only}
  • Udomthavornsuk B, Tatsanavivat P, Patjanasoontorn B, Khomthong R, Bhuripanyo K, Saengnipanthkul S, et al. Intervention of inappropriate antibiotic use at a university teaching hospital. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 1991/10/01 1991; Vol. 74, issue 10:429-36. [0125-2208: (Print)]
Wood 2008 {published data only}
  • Wood R, Kaplan R, Bekker LG, Brown S, Rivett U. The utility of pharmacy dispensing data for ART programme evaluation and early identification of patient loss to follow-up. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine 2008, issue 30:44-50.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Adisa 2012 {published data only}
  • Adisa R, Fakeye T O. Pharmacists-based intervention strategies to address compliance problems among poorly controlled type 2 diabetes in ambulatory care settings in Nigeria. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice 2012;20:41-2.
AJP 2011 {published data only}
  • Pharmacist intervention improves patient adherence to antidepressants. Australian Journal of Pharmacy 2011;92:100.
Azzopardi 2010 {published data only}
  • Azzopardi L, Hudson S, Mallia C, Cassar K, Coleiro B, Cassar P J, et al. Pharmaceutical care for rheumatoid arthritis patients on methotrexate attending an outpatient hospital clinic. Rheumatology 2010;49:i130.
Correr 2011 {published data only}
  • Correr C J, Melchiors A C, Fernandez-Llimos F, Pontarolo R. Effects of a pharmacotherapy follow-up in community pharmacies on type 2 diabetes patients in Brazil. International journal of clinical pharmacy [Online] 2011; Vol. 33:273-80. Available:
Costa 2012 {published data only}
  • Costa C G R, Carnevale R C, Holsback V S S, Braz N C, Santos C Z, Moriel P, et al. Can a year of pharmacotherapeutic follow-up reduce the incidence of drug-related problems and increase CD4 counts in HIV-positive outpatients?. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy: Science and Practice 2012;19:228.
Dewulf 2011 {published data only}
  • Dewulf N L, Santos V D, Pereira L R, Troncon L E. A structured program of pharmaceutical care benefits outpatients with inflammatory bowel diseases undergoing continuous drug therapy. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy 2011;140:S207.
Dewulf 2012 {published data only}
  • Dewulf N D L S, Santos V, Pereira L, Troncon L E D A. A structured pharmaceutical care program benefits outpatients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Gastroenterology 2012;34:212.
Fahimi 2011 {published data only}
  • Fahimi F, Sharif-Kashani B, Hossein-Ahmadi Z, Salamzadeh J, Namdar R, Mousavi S, et al. The first pharmacist-based warfarin-monitoring service in Iran. Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research 2011;2:59-62.
Farsaei 2011 {published data only}
  • Farsaei S, Sabzghabaee A M, Zargarzadeh A H, Amini M. Effect of pharmacist-led patient education on glycemic control of type 2 diabetics: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2011;16:43-9.
Fuchs 2010 {published data only}
  • Fuchs S C, Fuchs F D, Moreira L B, Gus M, Wiehe M, Fuchs F C, et al. Efficacy of home blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure control: A randomized controlled trial. Circulation 2010;122:e78.
Lavoie 2011 {published data only}
  • Lavoie K, Moullec G, Blais L, Beauchesne M F, Lemiere C, Labrecque M, et al. The efficacy of brief motivational interviewing to improve medication adherence in poorly controlled, nonadherent asthmatics: Results from a randomised controlled pilot study. Chest 2011;140:915A.
Lee 2012 {published data only}
  • Lee W Y, Chan M C, Cheun T K, So K H, Yu C M. Impact of pharmacist counselling service on blood pressure control of borderline hypertensive patients. European Heart Journal 2012;14:A25.
Lores 2011 {published data only}
  • Lores Delgado D, Lazo Roblejo Y, Bermudez Camps I B, Zuniga Moro A. Pharmacotherapeutic monitoring in patients with congestive heart failure, dispensarized at the Principal Municipal Pharmacy at Santiago de Cuba. Pharmaceutical Care Espana 2011;13:114-22.
Magedanz 2012 {published data only}
  • Magedanz L, Silliprandi E M, dos Santos R P. Impact of the pharmacist on a multidisciplinary team in an antimicrobial stewardship program: a quasi-experimental study. Int J Clin Pharm 2012;34:290-4.
Malaty 2011 {published data only}
  • Malaty J, Cook S, Green C. Influence of a pharmacist initiated educational intervention on patients' utilization of fluconazole for vulvovaginal candidiasis in an outpatient setting. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 2011;51:299-300.
Maria 2012 {published data only}
  • Maria Belen F I M B, Jose Manuel F O J M, Isabel M C I, Cristina G P C, Angeles F C A, Elena S Y E, et al. The improvement of adherence to antiretroviral treatment through the pharmaceutical care and the analysis of factors affecting it. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy: Science and Practice 2012;19:242.
Mohammad 2011 {published data only}
  • Mohammad R A, Kim J J, Donihi A C, Coley K. Impact of hospital-based pharmacist advocates in care transitions: Identification and description of medication related interventions after patient discharge from hospital to home. Pharmacotherapy 2011;31:388e.
Mori 2010 {published data only}
  • Mori Alpm, Heimann J C, Dorea E L, Bernik M M S, Storpirtis S. Pharmaceutic guidance to hypertensive patients at USP University Hospital: effect on adherence to treatment. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences [Online] 2010; Vol. 46:353-62. Available:
Moten 2010 {published data only}
  • Moten M, Barner J, Jokerst J. Medication therapy management and diabetes outcomes of diabetic patients who receive clinical pharmacy services. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 2010;50:312.
Ola-Olorun 2012 {published data only}
  • Ola-Olorun O J, Afolabi M O, Ogunsina A O, Oyebisi T O, Akinyemi O A, Akintomide A O, et al. Exploring medicine information needs of hypertensive patients using short message service (SMS) of mobile phone. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2012;21:116.
Olives 2012 {published data only}
  • Olives T D, Patel R G, Nelson R S, Yew A, Joing S, Miner J R. Randomized controlled trial of three instructional modalities for patients prescribed outpatient antibiotics from the ED: The potential of cell phone technology to reach limited health literacy patients. Academic Emergency Medicine 2012;19:S219.
Pinelli 2012 {published data only}
  • Pinelli N R, Clark L M, Malinzak L, Goggins M, Patel A. Pharmacist-managed diabetes and cardiovascular risk reduction clinic in renal transplant recipients: Preliminary findings. American Journal of Transplantation 2012;12:288-9.
Saokaew 2012 {published data only}
  • Saokaew S, Sapoo U, Nathisuwan S, Chaiyakunapruk N, Permsuwan U. Anticoagulation control of pharmacist-managed collaborative care versus usual care in Thailand. Int J Clin Pharm 2012;34:105-12.
Shapiro 2010 {published data only}
  • Shapiro L. Pharmacist intervention boosts patient compliance. Drug Topics 2010;154:27.
Tahaineh 2011 {published data only}
  • Tahaineh L, Albsoul-Younes A, Al-Ashqar E, Habeb A. The role of clinical pharmacist on lipid control in dyslipidaemic patients in North of Jordan. International journal of clinical pharmacy [Online] 2011; Vol. 33:229-36. Available:
Tse 2011 {published data only}
  • Tse T, Althunian T, Burrows J, Yang I, Masel P. An evaluation of the role and potential benefits of the clinical pharmacists involvement in respiratory outpatient clinic. Respirology 2011;16:52.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
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