Intervention Protocol

You have free access to this content

Psychological therapies for treatment-resistant depression in adults

  1. Nicola Wiles*,
  2. Catherine J Williams,
  3. David Kessler,
  4. Glyn Lewis

Editorial Group: Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group

Published Online: 4 JUN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010558

How to Cite

Wiles N, Williams CJ, Kessler D, Lewis G. Psychological therapies for treatment-resistant depression in adults (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD010558. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010558.

Author Information

  1. University of Bristol, School of Social and Community Medicine, Bristol, UK

*Nicola Wiles, School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Oakfield House, Oakfield Grove, Bristol, BS8 2BN, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 4 JUN 2013



Additional references

APA 2000
  • American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
APA 2010
  • American Psychiatric Association. Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Third Edition. 2010. (accessed 6 April 2013).
Bauer 1999
Beck 1961
  • Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 1961;4:561-71.
Beck 1979
  • Beck AT, Rush AJ, Shaw BF, Emery G. Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: Guildford Press, 1979.
Beck 1996
  • Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. Beck Depression Inventory - Second Edition: Manual. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation, 1996.
Carvalho 2007
  • Carvalho AF, Cavalcante JL, Castelo MS, Lima MCO. Augmentation strategies for treatment-resistant depression: a literature review. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 2007;32:415-28.
Carvalho 2008
Churchill 2001
  • Churchill R, Hunot V, Corney R, Knapp M, McGuire H, Tylee A, et al. A systematic review of controlled trials of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of brief psychological treatments for depression. Health Technology Assessment 2001;5(35):1-173.
Cohen 1988
  • Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis in the Behavioural Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1988.
Cooper 2011
  • Cooper C, Katona C, Lyketsos K, Blazer D, Brodaty H, Rabins P, et al. A systematic review of treatments for refractory depression in older people. American Journal of Psychiatry 2011;168:681-8.
Egger 1997
  • Egger M, Smith GD, Schneider M, Minder C. Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 1997;315:629-34.
Ellis 1962
  • Ellis A. Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stuart, 1962.
Fava 2005
Feighner 1972
  • Feighner JP, Robins E, Guze SB, Woodruff RA, Winokur G, Munoz R. Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry 1972;26:57-63.
Fekadu 2009
  • Fekadu A, Wooderson S, Donaldson C, Markopoulou K, Masterson B, Poon L, et al. A multidimensional tool to quantify treatment resistance in depression: the Maudsley staging method. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2009;70(2):177-84.
Freud 1949
  • Freud S. An Outline of Psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth Press, 1949.
Friedman 2004
  • Friedman MA, Detweiler-Bedell JB, Leventhal HE, Horne R, Keitner GI, Miller IW. Combined psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 2004;11:47-68.
Furukawa 2006
  • Furukawa TA, Barbui C, Cipriani A, Brambilla P, Watanabe N. Imputing missing standard deviations in meta-analyses can provide accurate results. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2006;59:7-10.
Greenberg 2003
  • Greenberg PE, Kessler RC, Birnbaum HG, Leong SA, Lowe SW, Berglund PA, et al. The economic burden of depression in the United States: how did it change between 1990 and 2000?. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2003;64(12):1465-75.
Hamilton 1960
Hayes 2004
  • Hayes SC, Masuda A, Bassett R, Luoma J, Guerrero LF. DBT, FAP and ACT: how empirically oriented are the new behaviour therapy technologies?. Behavior Therapy 2004;35(1):35-54.
Hayes 2006
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2013]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Higgins 2011a
  • Higgins JPT, Altman DG, On behalf of the Cochrane Statistical Methods Group and the Cochrane Bias Methods Group. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors).Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. Available from
Hofmann 2008
Hollanders 2007
  • Hollanders H. Integrative and eclectic approaches. In: Dryden W editor(s). In Dryden's Handbook of Individual Therapy. London: Sage, 2007:584.
Jung 1963
  • Jung CG, Jaffe A, Winston C. Memories, Dreams, Reflections. London: Collins - Routledge & Paul, 1963.
Klein 1960
  • Klein M. Our Adult World and its Roots in Infancy. London: Tavistock, 1960.
Klerman 1984
  • Klerman GL, Weissman MM, Rousaville BJ, Chevron ES. Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Depression. New York: Basic Books, 1984.
Lazarus 1971
  • Lazarus AA. Behavior Therapy and Beyond. Maidenhead, UK: McGraw, 1971.
Luborsky 1962
  • Luborsky, L. Clinician's judgements of mental health. Archives of General Psychiatry 1962;7:407-17.
Mansell 2008
  • Mansell W. The seven C's of CBT: a consideration of the future challenges for cognitive behavioural therapy. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 2008;36(6):641-9.
Marks 1981
  • Marks IM. Cure and Care of Neuroses: Theory and Practice of Behavioural Psychotherapy. New York: Wiley, 1981.
Maslow 1943
  • Maslow AH. A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review 1943;50:270-96.
Mathers 2005
  • Mathers CD, Loncar D. Updated Projections of Global Mortality and Burden of Disease, 2002-2030: Data Sources, Methods and Results (Working Paper). WHO, Geneva 2005.
May 1961
  • May R. Existential Psychology. New York: Random House, 1961.
McCrone 2008
  • McCrone P, Dhanasiri S, Patel A, Knapp M, Lawton-Smith S. Paying the Price: the Cost of Mental Health Care in England to 2026. London: King's Fund, 2008.
McCullough 1984
  • McCullough JP. Cognitive-behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy: an interactional treatment approach for dysthymic disorder. Psychiatry: Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes 1984;47(3):234-50.
McManus 2000
  • McManus P, Mant A, Mitchell PB, Montgomery WS, Marley J, Auland ME. Recent trends in the use of antidepressant drugs in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 2000;173:458-61.
McPherson 2005
Middleton 2001
Montgomery 1979
NICE 2009
  • National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Depression: the treatment and management of depression in adults (update). National Clinical Practice Guideline 90. 2009. (accessed 6 April 2013).
Nierenberg 2007
Olfson 2009
  • Olfson M, Marcus SC. National patterns in antidepressant treatment medication. Archives of General Psychiatry 2009;66:848-56.
Pampallona 2004
Papakostas 2008
Papakostas 2009
  • Papakostas GI. Managing partial response or nonresponse: switching, augmentation, and combination strategies for major depressive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2009;70(Suppl. 6):16-25.
Pincus 1998
RevMan 2011
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Rogers 1951
  • Rogers C. Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory. London: Constable, 1951.
Ryle 1990
  • Ryle A. Cognitive-Analytic Therapy - Active Participation in Change: New Integration in Brief Psychotherapy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
Shapiro 1990
  • Shapiro DA, Startup MJ. Raters' Manual for the Sheffield Psychotherapy Rating Scale. Sheffield, UK: MRC/ESRC Social and Applied Psychology Unit, University of Sheffield, 1990.
Shelton 2008
Skinner 1953
  • Skinner BF. Science and Human Behaviour. New York: Free Press, 1953.
Spitzer 1978
  • Spitzer RL, Robins E. Research diagnostic criteria: rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry 1978;35(6):773-82.
Stimpson 2002
  • Stimpson N, Agrawal N, Lewis G. Randomised controlled trials investigating pharmacological and psychological interventions for treatment-refractory depression. Systematic review. British Journal of Psychiatry 2002;181:284-94.
Thase 1997
The NHS Information Centre 2011
  • The NHS Information Centre. Prescription Cost Analysis England 2010. (accessed 6 April 2013).
Trivedi 2006
  • Trivedi MH, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Warden D, Ritz L, et al. Evaluation of outcomes with citalopram for depression using measurement-based care in STAR*D: implications for clinical practice. American Journal of Psychiatry 2006;163:28-40.
Ware 1993
  • Ware JE, Snow KK, Kosinski M, Gandek B. SF-36 Health Survey: Manual and Interpretation Guide. Boston, MA: The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, 1993.
Watson 1924
  • Watson JB. Behaviorism. New York: Norton, 1924.
Weissman 2007
  • Weissman MM, Markowitz JC, Klerman GL. Clinician's Quick Guide to Interpersonal Psychotherapy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
WHO 1992
  • World Health Organization. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - 10th Revision. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1992.
  • WHOQOL Group. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL): development and general psychometric properties. Social Science and Medicine 1998;46:1569-85.
Williams 2013
  • Williams CJ, Taylor M, Kessler D, Lewis G, Wiles N. Pharmacological interventions for treatment resistant depression in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5.
Wing 1994
  • Wing J. Measuring Mental Health Outcomes: a Perspective from the Royal College of Psychiatrists. Outcomes into Clinical Practice. London: BMJ Publishing, 1994.
WPA 1974
  • World Psychiatric Association. Symposium on therapy resistant depression. Pharmacopsychiatry 1974;7:69-74.