Intervention Protocol

You have free access to this content

Human resource management training of supervisors for improving health and well-being of employees

  1. Andreas Kuehnl1,2,*,
  2. Eva Rehfuess3,
  3. Erik von Elm4,
  4. Dennis Nowak2,
  5. Jürgen Glaser1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Group

Published Online: 8 JAN 2014

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010905

How to Cite

Kuehnl A, Rehfuess E, von Elm E, Nowak D, Glaser J. Human resource management training of supervisors for improving health and well-being of employees (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD010905. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010905.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Innsbruck, Institute of Psychology, Department for Applied Psychology, Innsbruck, Austria

  2. 2

    University of Munich, Institute and Outpatient Clinic for Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Munich, Germany

  3. 3

    Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, Munich, Germany

  4. 4

    Lausanne University Hospital, Cochrane Switzerland, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne, Switzerland

*Andreas Kuehnl,

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 8 JAN 2014



Additional references

Ariens 2001
  • Ariens GA, Bongers PM, Douwes M, Miedema MC, Hoogendoorn WE, van der Wal G, et al. Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2001;58(3):200-7.
Australian Public Service Commission 2011
  • Australian Public Service Commission. Leadership development strategy 2011-12. (accessed 10 May 2013).
Bamberger 2006
  • Bamberger PA, Bacharach SB. Abusive supervision and subordinate problem drinking: Taking resistance, stress and subordinate personality into account. Human Relations 2006;59(6):723-52.
Belkic 2004
  • Belkic KL, Landsbergis PA, Schnall PL, Baker D. Is job strain a major source of cardiovascular disease risk?. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 2004;30(2):85-128.
Brunner 2006
  • Brunner E, Marmot M. Social organization, stress, and health. In: Marmot M, Wilkinson RG editor(s). Social determinants of health. Oxford: University Press, 2006.
Bureau of Labor Statistics 2012
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics. Absence from work of employed full-time wage and salary workers by age, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. 2012. (accessed 04 January 2013).
Campbell 2001
  • Campbell MK, Mollison J, Grimshaw JM. Cluster trials in implementation research: estimation of intracluster correlation coefficients and sample size. Statistics in Medicine 2001;20(3):391-9.
Cochrane EPOC Group 2013a
  • Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. Suggested risk of bias criteria for EPOC reviews. 2013. (accessed 17 January 2013).
Cochrane EPOC Group 2013b
  • Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. What study designs should be included in an EPOC review and what should they be called?. (accessed 12 August 2013).
Cohen 1983
Cropanzano 2005
  • Cropanzano R, Goldman BM, Benson III L. Organizational Justice. In: Barling J, Kelloway E K, Frone MR editor(s). Handbook of work stress. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc., 2005.
Crowther 2011
D'Mello 2011
  • D'Mello S. Stress: The global economic downturn has taken its toll on employees. What is the impact for organisations?. (accessed 20 March 2013).
Darr 2008
Diener 1999
Eurofound 1997
  • European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound). Preventing absenteeism at the workplace: research summary. 1997.‎ (accessed 1 November 2013).
Eurofound 2010
  • European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound). Fifth European Working Conditions Survey - 2010. (accessed 5 November 2013).
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work 2007
  • European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Expert Forecast on Emerging Psychosocial Risks Related to Occupational Safety and Health. 2007. (accessed 8 November 2013).
European Commission 2003
  • European Commission. Commission Recommendation of 6 May 2003 concerning the definition of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. Official Journal L 124 of 20.05.2003. (accessed 11 November 2013).
European Commission 2010
  • European Commission. Health and safety at work in Europe (1999-2007). 2010. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, (accessed 14 November 2013).
European Commission 2011
  • European Commission. Europe in figures - Eurostat yearbook 2011. (accessed 20 November 2013).
Fransson 2012
  • Fransson EI, Heikkilä K, Nyberg ST, Zins M, Westerlund H, Westerholm P, et al. Job strain as a risk factor for leisure-time physical inactivity: an individual-participant meta-analysis of up to 170,000 men and women: The IPD-Work Consortium. American Journal of Epidemiology 2012;176(12):1078-89.
Gregersen 2011
  • Gregersen S, Kuhnert S, Zimber A, Nienhaus A. Leadership behaviour and health - current research state [Führungsverhalten und Gesundheit - Zum Stand der Forschung]. Gesundheitswesen 2011;73(1):3-12.
Heikkilä 2012a
  • Heikkilä K, Nyberg ST, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, De Bacquer D, Bjorner JB, et al. Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies. PLoS One 2012;7(7):e35463.
Heikkilä 2012b
  • Heikkilä K, Nyberg ST, Fransson EI, Alfredsson L, De Bacquer D, Bjorner JB, et al. Job strain and alcohol intake: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual-participant data from 140,000 men and women. PLoS One 2012;7(7):e40101.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Hoogendoorn 2000
  • Hoogendoorn WE, van Poppel MN, Bongers PM, Koes BW, Bouter LM. Systematic review of psychosocial factors at work and private life as risk factors for back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2000;25(16):2114-25.
Houtman 2005
  • Houtman I. Work-related stress. Dublin, (accessed 20 November 2013).
Houtman 2007
  • Houtman I, Jettinghoff K. Protecting Workers' Health Series No. 6Raising awareness of stress at work in developing countries. 2007. Geneva: World Health Organization, (accessed 20 November 2013).
Johns 2007
  • Johns G. Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. Blackwell Publishing, 2007.
Johns 2010
Joyce 2010
Kals 2012
  • Kals E, Jiranek P. Organizational Justice. In: Kals E, Maes J editor(s). Justice and Conflicts. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2012.
Kelloway 2010
Kivimäki 2002
  • Kivimäki M, Leino-Arjas P, Luukkonen R, Riihimäki H, Vahtera J, Kirjonen J. Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees. BMJ 2002;325(7369):857-61.
Kivimäki 2012
  • Kivimäki M, Nyberg ST, Batty GD, Fransson EI, Heikkilä K, Alfredsson L, et al. Job strain as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet 2012;380(9852):1491-7.
Knoll 2011
  • Knoll N, Scholz U, Rieckmann N. Einführung in die Gesundheitspsychologie. Stuttgart: UTB, 2011.
Kuoppala 2008
  • Kuoppala J, Lamminpää A, Liira J, Vainio H. Leadership, job well-being, and health effects - a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2008;50(8):904-15.
Kuper 2002
  • Kuper H, Marmot M, Hemingway H. Systematic review of prospective cohort studies of psychosocial factors in the etiology and prognosis of coronary heart disease. Seminars in Vascular Medicine 2002;2(3):267-314.
Lang 2012
  • Lang J, Ochsmann E, Kraus T, Lang JW. Psychosocial work stressors as antecedents of musculoskeletal problems: a systematic review and meta-analysis of stability-adjusted longitudinal studies. Social Science and Medicine 2012;75(7):1163-74.
Livanos 2010
  • Livanos I, Zangelidis A. Sickness Absence: a Pan-European Study. 2010. Munich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA) Paper. (accessed 25 November 2013).
Lohmann-Haislah 2012
  • Lohmann-Haislah. Stress report Germany 2012 [Stressreport Deutschland 2012 - Psychische Anforderungen, Ressourcen und Befinden]. (accessed 3 February 2012).
Marmot 2006
  • Marmot M, Siegrist J, Theorell T. Health and the psychosocial environment at work. In: Marmot M, Wilkinson RG editor(s). Social determinants of health. Oxford: University Press, 2006.
Marmot 2012
  • Marmot M, Allen J, Bell R, Bloomer E, Goldblatt P, Consortium for the European Review of Social Determinants of Health and the Health Divide. WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. Lancet 2012;380(9846):1011-29.
Maslach 1996
  • Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter MP. The Maslach Burnout Inventory Manual. 2nd Edition. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1996.
Moher 2009
Naghieh 2013
  • Naghieh A, Montgomery P, Bonell CP, Thompson M, Aber JL. Organisational interventions for improving wellbeing and reducing work-related stress in teachers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010306]
Nieuwenhuijsen 2010
  • Nieuwenhuijsen K, Bruinvels D, Frings-Dresen M. Psychosocial work environment and stress-related disorders, a systematic review. Occupational Medicine (Lond) 2010;60(4):277-86.
Nohria 2010
  • Nohria N, Khurana R. Handbook of Leadership Theory and Practice. Boston: Harvard Business School, 2010.
Nyberg 2005
  • Nyberg A, Bernin P, Theorell T. The impact of leadership on the health of subordinates. National Institute for Working Life. 2005.!/P2456_AN.pdf (accessed 11 March 2013).
Office for National Statistics 2012
  • Office for National Statistics. Sickness Absence in the Labour Market, April 2012. (accessed 4 January 2013).
Ogilvie 2008
  • Ogilvie D, Fayter D, Petticrew M, Sowden A, Thomas S, Whitehead M, et al. The harvest plot: a method for synthesising evidence about the differential effects of interventions. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2008;8:8.
Oxford Dictionaries 2013
  • Oxford Dictionaries. Absenteeism. (accessed 15 December 2013).
Petticrew 2013
  • Petticrew M, Rehfuess E, Noyes J, Higgins JP, Mayhew A, Pantoja T, et al. Synthesizing evidence on complex interventions: how meta-analytical, qualitative, and mixed-method approaches can contribute. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2013;66(11):1230-43.
Psychiatric Research Unit 1998
  • Psychiatric Research Unit, WHO Collaborating Centre in Mental Health. WHO (Five) Well-Being Index (1998 version). (accessed 15 December 2013).
Review Manager 2013
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration.. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration., 2013.
Ryff 1996
  • Ryff CD, Singer B. Psychological well-being: meaning, measurement, and implications for psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 1996;65(1):14-23.
Schaufeli 2002
  • Schaufeli WB, Salanova M, Gonzalez-Romá V, Bakker AB. The measurement of engagement and burnout: A confirmatory analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies 2002;3:71-92.
Semmer 2010
Siegrist 2006
  • Siegrist J, Rodel A. Work stress and health risk behavior. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health 2006;32(6):473-81.
Skakon 2010
  • Skakon J, Nielsen K, Borg V, Guzman J. Are leaders' well-being, behaviours and style associated with the affective well-being of their employees? A systematic review of three decades of research. Work & Stress 2010;24(2):107-39.
Stadler 2003
  • Stadler P, Spieß E. Psychosoziale Gefährdung am Arbeitsplatz - Optimierung der Beanspruchung durch die Entwicklung von Gestaltungskriterien. Dortmund, Berlin, Dresden: Wirtschaftsverlag NW - Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, 2003.
Stansfeld 2006
  • Stansfeld S, Candy B. Psychosocial work environment and mental health - a meta-analytic review. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health 2006;32(6):443-62.
Stansfeld 2012
  • Stansfeld SA, Shipley MJ, Head J, Fuhrer R. Repeated job strain and the risk of depression: longitudinal analyses from the Whitehall II study. American Journal of Public Health 2012;102(12):2360-6.
The World Bank 2013
  • The World Bank. How we Classify Countries. (accessed 20 June 2013).
Thomas 2008
  • Thomas S, Fayter D, Misso K, Ogilvie D, Petticrew M, Sowden A, et al. Population tobacco control interventions and their effects on social inequalities in smoking: systematic review. Tobacco Control 2008;17(4):230-7.
Tsutsumi 2011
  • Tsutsumi A. Development of an evidence-based guideline for supervisor training in promoting mental health: literature review. Journal of Occupational Health 2011;53(1):1-9.
Turley 2013
Verbeek 2009
  • Verbeek J. Sickness Absence as an outcome measure in Cochrane Reviews. 2009. (accessed 01 March 2013).
WHO 2005
  • World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse in collaboration with the Victorian Health Promotion Foundation and The University of Melbourne. Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging Evidence, Practice. 2005. (accessed 20 March 2013).
WHO 2013
  • World Health Organization. Occupational health - Stress at the workplace. (accessed 10 April 2013).
WHO Regional Office for Europe 2010
  • WHO Regional Office for Europe. Mental health and well-being at the workplace – protection and inclusion in challenging times. 2010. WHO Regional Office Europe: World Health Organization, (accessed 10 September 2013).
WIdO 2012
  • Wissenschaftliches Institut der AOK (WIdO). Fehlzeiten Report 2012: Gesundheit in der flexiblen Arbeitswelt: Chancen nutzen - Risiken minimieren. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
Yukl 2012
  • Yukl GA. Leadership in Organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2012.