Intervention Protocol

You have free access to this content

Leeches (Hirudinea) for osteoarthritis

  1. Ashley M Croft1,*,
  2. Shivika Chandra2,
  3. Guillermo Alberto Perez Fernandez3,
  4. Andreas Michalsen4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group

Published Online: 23 FEB 2014

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010962


How to Cite

Croft AM, Chandra S, Perez Fernandez GA, Michalsen A. Leeches (Hirudinea) for osteoarthritis (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD010962. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010962.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Ministry of Defence, Surgeon General's Department, London, UK

  2. 2

    Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, India

  3. 3

    Hospital Universitario "Celestino Hernández Robau", Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba

  4. 4

    Immanuel Hospital Berlin and Charité Medical University Centre, Department of Integrative and Internal Medicine and Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Berlin, Germany

*Ashley M Croft, Surgeon General's Department, Ministry of Defence, London, SW1A 2HA, UK. AshleyCroft@doctors.org.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 23 FEB 2014

SEARCH

References

Additional references

Abdualkader 2013
  • Abdualkader AM, Ghawi AM, Alaama M, Awang M, Merzouk A. Leech therapeutic applications. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2013;75(2):127-37.
Bielecki 2011
  • Bielecki A, Cichocka JM, Jeleń I, Swiatek P, Adamiak-Brud Z. A checklist of leech species from Poland. Wiadomości Parazytologićzne 2011;57(1):11-20.
Brion 2010
  • Brion PH, Kalunian KC. Osteoarthritis. In: Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD editor(s). Oxford Textbook of Medicine. 5th Edition. Oxford: OUP, 2010:3628-36.
Cheng 2005
  • Cheng SP, Lin JL, Yuan J. Study of the effect of leeching on plasma endothelin and soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 2005;11(1):65-8.
Clegg 2006
  • Clegg DO, Reda DJ, Harris CL, Klein MA, O'Dell JR, Hooper MM, et al. Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis. New England Journal of Medicine 2006;354(8):795-808.
da Costa 2012
de Chalain 1996
Derganc 1960
Deuser 1971
  • Deuser E. [Über Behandlungsmethoden von Distorsionen, Kontusionen und Hämatomen im Sportgeschehen]. Sportarzt und Sportsmedizin 1971;22:2-113.
Doherty 2010
  • Doherty M, Ralston SH. Musculoskeletal disease. In: Colledge NR, Walker BR, Ralston SH editor(s). Davidson’s Principles and Practice of Medicine. 21st Edition. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2010:1053-129.
Eroglu 2001
  • Eroglu C, Hokelek M, Guneren E, Esen S, Pekbay A, Uysal OA. Bacterial flora of Hirudo medicinalis and their antibiotic sensitivities in the Middle Black Sea Region, Turkey. Annals of Plastic Surgery 2001;47(1):70-3.
European Commission 2010
  • European Commission. Guidelines on medical devices. Clinical investigations: serious adverse event reporting under Directives 90/385/EEC and 93/42/EEC, 2010. ec.europa.eu/health/medical-devices/files/meddev/2_7_3_en.pdf (accessed 7 December 2013).
Felson 1988
Felson 2012
  • Felson DT. Osteoarthritis. In: Longo DL, Fauci AS, Kasper DL, Hauser SL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J editor(s). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. 18th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2012:2828-36.
Foucher 1981
  • Foucher G, Henderson HR, Maneau M, Merle M, Braun PM. Distal digital replantation: one of the best indications for microsurgery. Journal of Microsurgery 1981;3:265-70.
Fransen 2008
Fransen 2009
Graham 1995
Haycraft 1884
  • Haycraft JB. On the action of a secretion obtained from the medicinal leech on the coagulation of blood. Proceedings of the Royal Society (Series B) 1884;36:478-87.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Hyson 2005
  • Hyson JM. Leech therapy: a history. Journal of the History of Medicine 2005;53(1):25-7.
Jüni 2006
Kalender 2010
Koeppen 2013
  • Koeppen D, Aurich M, Rampp T. Medicinal leech therapy in pain syndromes: a narrative review. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 2013;Oct. [DOI: 10.1007/s10354-013-0236-y]
Kutschera 2012
Lent 1986
Lent 1988
Li 2013
  • Li S, Yu B, Zhou D, He C, Zhuo Q, Hulme JM. Electromagnetic fields for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003523.pub2]
Lone 2011
  • Lone AH, Ahmad T, Anwar M, Habib S, Sofi G, Imam H. Leech therapy – a holistic approach of treatment in unani (Graeco-Arab) medicine. Ancient Science of Life 2011;31(1):31-5.
Manheimer 2010
Michalsen 2007
  • Michalsen A, Roth M, Dobos G. Medicinal Leech Therapy. Stuttgart: Thieme, 2007.
Moher 2009
Mory 2000
Munshi 2005
  • Munshi Y, Yousuf M, Iqbal M, Ara I. Prophylactic and curative treatment of frostbite by regimental therapies. Hippocratic Journal of Unani Medicine 2005;1:21-5.
Murphy 2012
Nigar 2011
  • Nigar Z, Alam A. Effect of taleeq (leech therapy) in dawali (varicose veins). Ancient Science of Life 2011;30(3):84-91.
Nüesch 2009
  • Nüesch E, Trelle S, Reichenbach S, Rutjes AW, Bürgi E, Scherer M, et al. The effects of excluding patients from the analysis in randomised controlled trials: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ 2009;339(b3244). [DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b3244]
Panda 2012
Pivec 2012
Porshinsky 2011
  • Porshinsky BS, Saha S, Grossman MD, Beery PR, Stawicki SP. Clinical uses of the medicinal leech: a practical review. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 2011;57(1):65-71.
Rados 2004
  • Rados C. Beyond bloodletting: FDA gives leeches a medical makeover. FDA Consumer 2004;38(5):9.
Reichenbach 2007
  • Reichenbach S, Sterchi R, Scherer M, Trelle S, Bürgi E, Bürgi U, et al. Meta-analysis: chondroitin for osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Annals of Internal Medicine 2007;146(8):580-90.
Reichenbach 2010
Reid 2012
RevMan 2013 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2013.
Rutjes 2009
  • Rutjes AW, Nüesch E, Sterchi R, Kalichman L, Hendriks E, Osiri M, et al. Transcutaneous electrostimulation for osteoarthritis of the knee. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002823.pub2]
Rutjes 2010
Sawyer 1986
  • Sawyer RT. Leech Biology and Behaviour. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986.
Shipley 2009
  • Shipley M, Rahman A, O’Gradaigh D, Compston JE. Rheumatology and bone disease. In: Kumar P, Clark M editor(s). Kumar and Clark’s Clinical Medicine. 7th Edition. London: Saunders, 2009:499-569.
Singh 2009
  • Singh AP. Medicinal leech therapy (hirudotherapy): a brief overview. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 2009;16(4):213-5.
Singh 2010
Sinusas 2012
Srivastava 2010
  • Srivastava A, Sharma R. A brief review on applications of leech therapy. Archives of Applied Science Research 2010;2(2):271-4.
Sun 2007
  • Sun H. From leeching to anaphrodisiacs. Treatments of epilepsy in the nineteenth century. University of Toronto Medical Journal 2007;84:107-10.
Valauri 1991
Verra 2013
  • Verra WC, van den Boom LG, Jacobs W, Clement DJ, Wymenga AA, Nelissen RG. Retention versus sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty for treating osteoarthritis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004803.pub3]
Wade 1990
West 1994
Whitaker 2012
Worth 1951
  • Worth CB. Description and discussion of the biting of an Indian land leech (Annelida: Hirudinea). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 1951;510:423-6.
Wu 2005
  • Wu CW, Morrell MR, Heinze E, Concoff AL, Wollaston SJ, Arnold EL, et al. American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for knee osteoarthritis using arthroscopically defined cartilage damage scores. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatology 2005;35(3):197-201.
Yantis 2009
Zaidi 2011
  • Zaidi SM, Jameel SS, Zaman F, Jilani S, Sultana A, Khan SA. A systematic overview of the medicinal importance of sanguivorous leeches. Alternative Medicine Review 2011;16(1):59-65.