Intervention Protocol

You have free access to this content

Caregiver-mediated exercises for improving outcomes after stroke

  1. Judith DM Vloothuis1,*,
  2. Erwin EH van Wegen2,
  3. Janne M Veerbeek2,3,
  4. Manin Konijnenbelt1,
  5. Johanna MA Visser-Meily4,
  6. Gert Kwakkel2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Stroke Group

Published Online: 2 APR 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 4 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011058

How to Cite

Vloothuis JDM, van Wegen EEH, Veerbeek JM, Konijnenbelt M, Visser-Meily JMA, Kwakkel G. Caregiver-mediated exercises for improving outcomes after stroke (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD011058. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011058.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre, Reade, Department of Neurorehabilitation, Amsterdam, Netherlands

  2. 2

    VU University Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands

  3. 3

    VU University Medical Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Physical Therapy, Amsterdam, Noor-Holland, Netherlands

  4. 4

    University Medical Center Utrecht and De Hoogstraat, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands

*Judith DM Vloothuis, Department of Neurorehabilitation, Amsterdam Rehabilitation Research Centre, Reade, Overtoom 283, PO Box 58271, Amsterdam, 1054 HW, Netherlands.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 2 APR 2014



Additional references

Aben 2002
  • Aben I, Verhey F, Lousberg R, Lodder J, Honig A. Validity of the beck depression inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, SCL-90, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale as screening instruments for depression in stroke patients. Psychosomatics 2002;43(5):386-93.
Berg 1992
  • Berg KO, Wood-Dauphinee SL, Williams JI, Maki B. Measuring balance in the elderly: validation of an instrument. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1992;83(Suppl 2:S):7-11.
Berg 1995
  • Berg K, Wood-Dauphinee S, Williams JI. The Balance Scale: reliability assessment with elderly residents and patients with an acute stroke. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 1995;27(1):27-36.
Bernhardt 2004
Bjelland 2002
Brereton 2002
Brouwer 2006
  • Brouwer WB, van Exel NJ, van Gorp B, Redekop WK. The CarerQol instrument: a new instrument to measure care-related quality of life of informal caregivers for use in economic evaluations. Quality of Life Research 2006;15(6):1005-21.
Chen 2012
  • Chen HF, Lin KC, Wu CY, Chen CL. Rasch validation and predictive validity of the action research arm test in patients receiving stroke rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2012;93(6):1039-45.
Collen 1990
  • Collen FM, Wade DT, Bradshaw CM. Mobility after stroke: reliability of measures of impairment and disability. International Disability Studies 1990;12(1):6-9.
Collen 1991
  • Collen FM, Wade DT, Robb GF, Bradshaw CM. The Rivermead Mobility Index: a further development of the Rivermead Motor Assessment. International Disability Studies 1991;13(2):50-4.
Collin 1988
  • Collin C, Wade DT, Davies S, Horne V. The Barthel ADL Index: a reliability study. International Disability Studies 1988;10(2):61-3.
Collin 1990
De Haan 1995
  • De Haan R, Limburg M, Bossuyt P, van der Meulen J, Aaronson N. The clinical meaning of Rankin 'handicap' grades after stroke. Stroke 1995;26(11):2027-30.
De Weerdt 2002
Dodds 1993
  • Dodds TA, Martin DP, Stolov WC, Devo RA. A validation of the functional independence measurement and its performance among rehabilitation inpatients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 1993;74(5):531-6.
Dromerick 2003
  • Dromerick AW, Edwards DF, Diringer MN. Sensitivity to changes in disability after stroke: a comparison of four scales useful in clinical trials. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 2003;40(1):1-8.
Duncan 1983
  • Duncan PW, Propst M, Nelson SG. Reliability of the Fugl-Meyer assessment of sensorimotor recovery following cerebrovascular accident. Physical Therapy 1983;63(10):1606-10.
Duncan 1999
  • Duncan PW, Wallace D, Lai SM, Johnson D, Embretson S, Laster LJ. The stroke impact scale version 2.0. Evaluation of reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change. Stroke 1999;30(10):2131-40.
Duncan 2002
Duncan 2003
  • Duncan PW, Bode RK, Min LS, Perera S. Rasch analysis of a new stroke-specific outcome scale: the Stroke Impact Scale. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2003;84(7):950-63.
ESO 2008
  • The European Stroke Organization (ESO) Executive Committee and the ESO Writing Committee. Guidelines for management of ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack 2008. (accessed 1 September 2013).
Flansbjer 2005
  • Flansbjer UB, Holmbäck AM, Downham D, Patten C, Lexell J. Reliability of gait performance tests in men and women with hemiparesis after stroke. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2005;37(2):75-82.
French 2007
Galvin 2008
  • Galvin R, Murphy B, Cusack T, Stokes E. The impact of increased duration of exercise therapy on functional recovery following stroke - what is the evidence?. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation 2008;15(4):365-77.
Gordon 2004
  • Gordon PA, Perronne KM. When spouses become caregivers: counselling implications for younger couples. Journal of Rehabilitation 2004;80:27-32.
Herrmann 1997
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Hoefman 2011
  • Hoefman RJ, van Exel NJA, van Looren De Jong S, Orlewska E, Brouwer W. A new test of the construct validity of the CarerQol instrument: measuring the impact of informal care giving. Quality of Life Research 2011;20(6):875-87.
Hsieh 1998
Hsieh 2000
  • Hsieh CL, Hsueh IP, Mao HF. Validity and responsiveness of the Rivermead Mobility Index in stroke patients. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2000;32(3):140-2.
Hsueh 2003
Kwakkel 2004
  • Kwakkel G, van Peppen R, Wagenaar RC, Wood Dauphinee S, Richards C, Ashburn A, et al. Effects of augmented exercise therapy time after stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke 2004;35(11):2529-39.
Kwakkel 2006
Langhorne 2001
  • Langhorne P, Duncan P. Does the organization of postacute stroke care really matter?. Stroke 2001;32(1):268-74.
Langhorne 2011
  • Langhorne P, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G. Stroke rehabilitation. Lancet 2011;377(9778):1693-702.
Mahoney 1965
  • Mahoney FI, Barthel DW. Functional evaluation: the Barthel Index. Maryland State Medical Journal 1965;14:61-5.
Mao 2002
NICE 2013
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Stroke rehabilitation: long-term rehabilitation after stroke. (accessed 1 September 2013).
Nouri 1987
  • Nouri FM, Lincoln NB. An extended activities of daily living scale for stroke patients. Clinical Rehabilitation 1987;1:301-5.
Otterman 2012
  • Otterman NM, van der Wees PJ, Bernhardt J, Kwakkel G. Physical therapists' guideline adherence on early mobilization and intensity of practice at Dutch acute stroke units: a country-wide survey. Stroke 2012;43(9):2395-401.
Platz 2005
  • Platz T, Pinkowski C, van Wijck F, Kim IH, di Bella P, Johnson G. Reliability and validity of arm function assessment with standardized guidelines for the Fugl-Meyer Test, Action Research Arm Test and Box and Block Test: a multicentre study. Clinical Rehabilitation 2005;19(4):404-11.
RevMan 2012
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012.
Robinson 1983
  • Robinson B. Validation of a Caregiver Strain Index. Journal of Gerontology 1983;38(3):344-8.
Sanford 1993
  • Sanford J, Moreland J, Swanson LR, Stratford PW, Gowland C. Reliability of the Fugl-Meyer assessment for testing motor performance in patients following stroke. Physical Therapy 1993;73(7):447-54.
Shelton 2001
  • Shelton FD, Volpe BT, Reding M. Motor impairment as a predictor of functional recovery and guide to rehabilitation treatment after stroke. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair 2001;15(3):229-37.
SIGN 2010
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. SIGN Guideline 118. Management of patients with stroke: rehabilitation, prevention and management of complications, and discharge planning. (accessed 1 September 2013).
Smith 2004
Smith 2008
  • Smith P, Galea M, Woodward M, Said C, Dorevitch M. Physical activity by elderly patients undergoing inpatient rehabilitation is low: an observational study. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2008;54(3):209-13.
Stevenson 2001
  • Stevenson TJ . Detecting change in patients with stroke using the Berg Balance Scale. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001;47(1):29-38.
Valko 2008
Veerbeek 2011
  • Veerbeek JM, Koolstra M, Ket JC, van Wegen EE, Kwakkel G. Effects of augmented exercise therapy on outcome of gait and gait-related activities in the first 6 months after stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke 2011;42(11):3311-5.
Wade 1985
  • Wade DT, Legh-Smith J, Langton Hewer R. Social activities after stroke: measurement and natural history using the Frenchay Activities Index. Disability and Rehabilitation 1985;7(4):176-81.
Wade 1987
West 2012
  • West T, Bernhardt J. Physical activity in hospitalised stroke patients. Stroke Research and Treatment ( 2012.
WHO 1989
  • World Health Organization. Stroke - 1989 recommendations on stroke prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Report of the WHO Task Force on stroke and other cerebrovascular disorders. Stroke 1989;20:1407-31.
Zigmond 1983