Methodology Review

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Industry sponsorship and research outcome

  1. Andreas Lundh1,*,
  2. Sergio Sismondo2,
  3. Joel Lexchin3,
  4. Octavian A Busuioc2,
  5. Lisa Bero4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Methodology Review Group

Published Online: 12 DEC 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 SEP 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.MR000033.pub2


How to Cite

Lundh A, Sismondo S, Lexchin J, Busuioc OA, Bero L. Industry sponsorship and research outcome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 12. Art. No.: MR000033. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.MR000033.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Rigshospitalet, The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark

  2. 2

    Queen's University, Department of Philosophy, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

  3. 3

    York University, School of Health Policy and Management, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

  4. 4

    University of California San Francisco, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Institute for Health Policy Studies, San Francisco, California, USA

*Andreas Lundh, The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 7811, Copenhagen, DK-2100, Denmark. al@cochrane.dk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions), comment added to review
  2. Published Online: 12 DEC 2012

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Ahmer 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ahmer S, Arya P, Anderson D, Faruqui R. Conflict of interest in psychiatry. The Psychiatrist 2005;29(8):302-4.
Alasbali 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Alasbali T, Smith M, Geffen N, Trope GE, Flanagan JG, Jin Y, et al. Discrepancy between results and abstract conclusions in industry- vs nonindustry-funded studies comparing topical prostaglandins. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2009;147(1):33-8.e2.
Als-Nielsen 2003 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Als-Nielsen B, Chen W, Gluud C, Kjaergard LL. Association of funding and conclusions in randomized drug trials: a reflection of treatment effect or adverse events?. JAMA 2003;290(7):921-8.
Barden 2006 {published data only}
Bero 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bero L, Oostvogel F, Bacchetti P, Lee K. Factors associated with findings of published trials of drug-drug comparisons: why some statins appear more efficacious than others. PLoS Medicine 2007;4(6):e184.
Bhandari 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Bhandari M, Busse JW, Jackowski D, Montori VM, Schünemann H, Sprague S, et al. Association between industry funding and statistically significant pro-industry findings in medical and surgical randomized trials. CMAJ 2004;170(4):477-80.
Booth 2008 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Booth CM, Cescon DW, Wang L, Tannock IF, Krzyzanowska MK. Evolution of the randomized controlled trial in oncology over three decades. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2008;26(33):5458-64.
Bourgeois 2010 {published and unpublished data}
Brown 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Brown A, Kraft D, Schmitz SM, Sharpless V, Martin C, Shah R, et al. Association of industry sponsorship to published outcomes in gastrointestinal clinical research. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology 2006;4(12):1445-51.
Buchkowsky 2004 {published data only}
Chard 2000 {published and unpublished data}
Cho 1996 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Clifford 2002 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Crocetti 2010 {published and unpublished data}
Davidson 1986 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Davis 2008 {published data only}
Djulbegovic 2000 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Etter 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Finucane 2004 {published data only}
  • Finucane TE, Boult CE. Association of funding and findings of pharmaceutical research at a meeting of a medical professional society. The American Journal of Medicine 2004;117(11):842-5.
Freemantle 2000 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Freemantle N, Anderson IM, Young P. Predictive value of pharmacological activity for the relative efficacy of antidepressant drugs. Meta-regression analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2000;177:292-302.
Gartlehner 2010 {published data only}
  • Gartlehner G, Morgan L, Thieda P, Fleg A. The effect of study sponsorship on a systematically evaluated body of evidence of head-to-head trials was modest: secondary analysis of a systematic review. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2010;63(2):117-25.
Halpern 2005 {published data only}
Heres 2006 {published data only}
  • Heres S, Davis J, Maino K, Jetzinger E, Kissling W, Leucht S. Why olanzapine beats risperidone, risperidone beats quetiapine, and quetiapine beats olanzapine: An exploratory analysis of head-to-head comparison studies of second-generation antipsychotics. American Journal of Psychiatry 2006;163(2):185-94.
Jefferson 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Jefferson T, Di Pietrantonj C, Debalini MG, Rivetti A, Demicheli V. Relation of study quality, concordance, take home message, funding, and impact in studies of influenza vaccines: systematic review. BMJ 2009;338:b354.
Jones 2010 {published data only}
Kelly 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kelly RE Jr, Cohen LJ, Semple RJ, Bialer P, Lau A, Bodenheimer A, et al. Relationship between drug company funding and outcomes of clinical psychiatric research. Psychological Medicine 2006;36(11):1647-56.
Kemmeren 2001 {published data only}
Kjaergard 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kjaergard LL, Als-Nielsen B. Association between competing interests and authors' conclusions: Epidemiological study of randomised clinical trials published in the BMJ. BMJ 2002;325(7358):249-52.
Liss 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Liss H. Publication bias in the pulmonary/allergy literature: effect of pharmaceutical company sponsorship. Israel Medical Association Journal:IMAJ 2006;8(7):451-4.
Lubowitz 2007 {published data only}
  • Lubowitz JH, Appleby D, Centeno JM, Woolf SK, Reid JB 3rd. The relationship between the outcome of studies of autologous chondrocyte implantation and the presence of commercial funding. The American Journal of Sports Medicine 2007;35(11):1809-16.
Lynch 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lynch JR, Cunningham MR, Warme WJ, Schaad DC, Wolf FM, Leopold SS. Commercially funded and United States-based research is more likely to be published; good-quality studies with negative outcomes are not. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 2007;89(5):1010-8.
Momeni 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Momeni A, Becker A, Bannasch H, Antes G, Blümle A, Stark GB. Association between research sponsorship and study outcome in plastic surgery literature. Annals of Plastic Surgery 2009;63(6):661-4.
Moncrieff 2003 {published and unpublished data}
Montgomery 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Montgomery JH, Byerly M, Carmody T, Li B, Miller DR, Varghese F, et al. An analysis of the effect of funding source in randomized clinical trials of second generation antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia. Controlled Clinical Trials 2004;25(6):598-612.
Nieto 2007 {published data only}
  • Nieto A, Mazon A, Pamies R, Linana JJ, Lanuza A, Jiménez FO, et al. Adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroids in funded and nonfunded studies. Archives of Internal Medicine 2007;167(19):2047-53.
Pengel 2009 {published and unpublished data}
Peppercorn 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Perlis 2005a {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Perlis CS, Harwood M, Perlis RH. Extent and impact of industry sponsorship conflicts of interest in dermatology research. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2005;52(6):967-71.
Perlis 2005b {published and unpublished data}
  • Perlis RH, Perlis CS, Wu Y, Hwang C, Joseph M, Nierenberg AA. Industry sponsorship and financial conflict of interest in the reporting of clinical trials in psychiatry. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2005;162(10):1957-60.
Popelut 2010 {published and unpublished data}
Rasmussen 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Rasmussen N, Lee K, Bero L. Association of trial registration with the results and conclusions of published trials of new oncology drugs. Trials 2009;10:116.
Rattinger 2009 {published and unpublished data}
Ridker 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Rios 2008 {published and unpublished data}
  • Rios LP, Odueyungbo A, Moitri MO, Rahman MO, Thabane L. Quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials in general endocrinology literature. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2008;93(10):3810-6.
Rochon 1994 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Rochon PA, Gurwitz JH, Simms RW, Fortin PR, Felson DT, Minaker KL, et al. A study of manufacturer-supported trials of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of arthritis. Archives of Internal Medicine 1994;154(2):157-63.
Tulikangas 2006 {published data only}
Tungaraza 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Vlad 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Chowers 2009 {published data only}
  • Chowers MY, Gottesman BS, Leibovici L, Pielmeier U, Andreassen S, Paul M. Reporting of adverse events in randomized controlled trials of highly active antiretroviral therapy: systematic review. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2009;64(2):239-50.
Conen 2008 {published data only}
  • Conen D, Torres J, Ridker PM. Differential citation rates of major cardiovascular clinical trials according to source of funding a survey from 2000 to 2005. Circulation 2008;118(13):1321-7.
Cunningham 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Cunningham MR, Warme WJ, Schaad DC, Wolf FM, Leopold SS. Industry-funded positive studies not associated with better design or larger size. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2007;457:235-41.
Friedman 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Glick 2006 {published data only}
Hall 2007 {published data only}
  • Hall R, de Antueno C, Webber A, Canadian Research Ethics Board. Publication bias in the medical literature: A review by a Canadian Research Ethics Board. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 2007;54(5):380-8.
Hill 2007 {published data only}
  • Hill CL, Buchbinder R, Osborne R. Quality of reporting of randomized clinical trials in abstracts of the 2005 annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology. Journal of Rheumatology 2007;34(12):2476-80.
Jagsi 2009 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Khan 2008 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Khan SN, Mermer MJ, Myers E, Sandhu HS. The roles of funding source, clinical trial outcome, and quality of reporting in orthopedic surgery literature. American Journal of Orthopedics 2008;37(12):E205-12.
Kjaergard 1999 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Krzyzanowska 2003 {published data only}
Kulier 2004 {published data only}
  • Kulier R, Helmerhorst FM, Maitra N, Gülmezoglu AM. Effectiveness and acceptability of progestogens in combined oral contraceptives - A systematic review. Reproductive Health 2004;1(1):1.
Kulkarni 2007 {published data only}
Lai 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Lai R, Chu R, Fraumeni M, Thabane L. Quality of randomized controlled trials reporting in the primary treatment of brain tumors. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006; Vol. 24, issue 7:1136-44.
Leopold 2003 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Leopold SS, Warme WJ, Fritz Braunlich E, Shott S. Association between funding source and study outcome in orthopaedic research. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 2003;415:293-301.
Leucht 2009a {published data only}
Leucht 2009b {published data only}
  • Leucht S, Komossa K, Rummel-Kluge C, Corves C, Hunger H, Schmid F, et al. A meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons of second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 2009;166(2):152-63.
McLennan 2008 {published data only}
  • McLennan M, Leong FC, Steele A, Harris J. The influence of industry sponsorship on the acceptance of abstracts and their publication. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2008;198(5):579.e1-4.
Montori 2005 {published data only}
Nkansah 2009 {published data only}
  • Nkansah N, Nguyen T, Iraninezhad H, Bero L. Randomized trials assessing calcium supplementation in healthy children: relationship between industry sponsorship and study outcomes. Public Health Nutrition 2009;12(10):1931-7.
Okike 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Okike K, Kocher MS, Mehlman CT, Bhandari M. Conflict of interest in orthopaedic research: An association between findings and funding in scientific presentations. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 2007;89(3):608-13.
Okike 2008 {published data only}
  • Okike K, Kocher MS, Mehlman CT, Heckman JD, Bhandari M. Nonscientific factors associated with acceptance for publication in The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume). The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 2008;90(11):2432-7.
Procyshyn 2004 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Procyshyn RM, Chau A, Fortin P, Jenkins W. Prevalence and outcomes of pharmaceutical industry-sponsored clinical trials involving clozapine, risperidone, or olanzapine. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2004;49(9):601-6.
Roach 2008 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Roach JW, Skaggs DL, Sponseller PD, Macleod LM. Is research presented at the scoliosis research society annual meeting influenced by industry funding?. Spine 2008;33(20):2208-12.
Sanossian 2006 {published data only}
Shah 2005 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Shah RV, Albert TJ, Bruegel-Sanchez V, Vaccaro AR, Hilibrand AS, Grauer JN. Industry support and correlation to study outcome for papers published in spine. Spine 2005;30(9):1099-104.
Thomas 2008 {published data only}
  • Thomas O, Thabane L, Douketis J, Chu R, Westfall AO, Allison DB. Industry funding and the reporting quality of large long-term weight loss trials. International Journal of Obesity 2008;32(10):1531-6.
Watanabe 2010 {published data only}
  • Watanabe N, Omori IM, Nakagawa A, Cipriani A, Barbui C, McGuire H, et al. Safety reporting and adverse-event profile of mirtazapine described in randomized controlled trials in comparison with other classes of antidepressants in the acute-phase treatment of adults with depression: systematic review and meta-analysis. CNS Drugs 2010;24(1):35-53.
Yao 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Yaphe 2001 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Lexchin 2003