Fourth-grade students in each of three classrooms were randomly assigned to either a treatment or a Hawthorne control group. The treatment consisted of participation in the Toward Affective Development program for 15 minutes a day, five days a week, over an 11-week period. A classroom teacher on temporary leave from the district conducted both the treatment and the series of art projects making up the Hawthorne control activities. Following treatment, self-report measures of social adjustment and self-concept were administered to between 42 and 50 students, depending on the number of absences from school on any given posttesting day. No treatment effects were noted, regardless of sex or class membership. Present findings were discussed in relation to five recent affective educational program evaluation studies. Four variables (degree of facilitator training, Hawthorne control, self-report dependent measures, and subject age) were identified as potentially strong moderators of program impact on social adjustment and self-concept. Finally, conditions that may maximize student gain in future research were suggested.