Modern Separation Techniques for the Efficient Workup in Organic Synthesis

Authors

  • Carl Christoph Tzschucke Dipl.-Chem.,

    1. Institut für Organische Chemie Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Albertstrasse 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany) Fax: (+49) 761-203-8705
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  • Christian Markert Dipl.-Chem.,

    1. Institut für Organische Chemie Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Albertstrasse 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany) Fax: (+49) 761-203-8705
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  • Willi Bannwarth Prof. Dr.,

    1. Institut für Organische Chemie Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Albertstrasse 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany) Fax: (+49) 761-203-8705
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  • Sebastian Roller Dipl.-Chem.,

    1. Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum und Institut für Makromolekulare Chemie Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Stefan-Meier-Strasse 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany) Fax: (+49) 761-203-4709
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  • André Hebel Dipl.-Chem.,

    1. Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum und Institut für Makromolekulare Chemie Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Stefan-Meier-Strasse 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany) Fax: (+49) 761-203-4709
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  • Rainer Haag Dr.

    1. Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum und Institut für Makromolekulare Chemie Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg Stefan-Meier-Strasse 21, 79104 Freiburg (Germany) Fax: (+49) 761-203-4709
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Abstract

The shift of paradigm in combinatorial chemistry, from large compound libraries (of mixtures) on a small scale towards defined compound libraries where each compound is prepared in an individual well, has stimulated the search for alternative separation approaches. The key to a rapid and efficient synthesis is not only the parallel arrangement of reactions, but simple work-up procedures so as to circumvent time-consuming and laborious purification steps. During the initial development stages of combinatorial synthesis it was believed that rational synthesis of individual compounds could only be achieved by solid-phase strategies. However, there are a number of problems in solid-phase chemistry: most notably there is the need for a suitable linker unit, the limitation of the reaction conditions to certain solvents and reagents, and the heterogeneous reaction conditions. Further disadvantages are: the moderate loading capacities of the polymeric support and the limited stability of the solid support. In the last few years several new separation techniques have been developed. Depending on the chemical problem or the class of compounds to be prepared, one can choose from a whole array of different approaches. Most of these modern separation approaches rely on solution-phase chemistry, even though some of them use solid-phase resins as tools (for example, as scavengers). Several of these separation techniques are based on liquid–liquid phase separation, including ionic liquids, fluorous phases, and supercritical solvents. Besides being benign with respect to their environmental aspects, they also show a number of advantages with respect to the work-up procedures of organic reactions as well as simplicity in the isolation of products. Another set of separation strategies involves polymeric supports (for example, as scavengers or for cyclative cleavage), either as solid phases or as soluble polymeric supports. In contrast to solid-phase resins, soluble polymeric supports allow reactions to be performed under homogeneous conditions, which can be an important factor in catalysis. At the same time, a whole set of techniques has been developed for the separation of these soluble polymeric supports from small target molecules. Finally, miscellaneous separation techniques, such as phase-switchable tags for precipitation by chemical modification or magnetic beads, can accelerate the separation of compounds in a parallel format.

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