Advanced Materials

Cover image for Vol. 14 Issue 22

November, 2002

Volume 14, Issue 22

Pages 1595–1666

    1. Contents: Adv. Mater. 22/2002 (pages 1595–1598)

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1595::AID-ADMA1595>3.0.CO;2-I

    2. Correction: Adv. Mater.2002, 14, 953. (page 1600)

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1600::AID-ADMA1600>3.0.CO;2-N

    3. Correction: Adv. Mater.2002, 14, 1230. (page 1600)

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1600::AID-ADMA11111600>3.0.CO;2-F

    4. Correction: Adv. Mater.2002, 14, 1393. (page 1600)

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1600::AID-ADMA22221600>3.0.CO;2-7

    5. Correction: Adv. Mater.2002, 14, 1574. (page 1600)

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1600::AID-ADMA33331600>3.0.CO;2-#

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      In Profile: Janos H. Fendler, Distinguished CAMP Professor of Chemistry, Clarkson University, NY (page 1601)

      Article first published online: 3 DEC 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1601::AID-ADMA1601>3.0.CO;2-H

    7. Perspectives on Thin Molecular Organic Films (pages 1603–1614)

      J. Fraxedas

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1603::AID-ADMA1603>3.0.CO;2-5

      Fundamental issues related to thin films of molecular organic materials are reviewed. Topics covered include growth, polymorphism, orientation, and morphology of the films, as well as the parts played by doping and the choice of substrate. The role of interfaces, which greatly affect the formation and the physical properties of organic–inorganic heterostructures, is also discussed. The Figure illustrates a de-wetting process observed on the surface of a film.

    8. Topological Similarity of Sponge-like Bicontinuous Morphologies Differing in Length Scale (pages 1615–1618)

      H. Jinnai, Y. Nishikawa, M. Ito, S.D. Smith, D.A. Agard and R.J. Spontak

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1615::AID-ADMA1615>3.0.CO;2-S

      Sponge-like bicontinuous morphologies (see Figure and also cover) are ubiquitous in the physical and biological sciences, but are only qualitatively understood in terms of their structure. Here, 3D imaging techniques are used to explore the characteristics of such morphologies at the nanoscale, microscale, and macroscale. Comparison of local and global topology metrics provides quantitative evidence of similarities between these morphologies.

    9. Monodisperse Diameter-Modulated Gold Microwires (pages 1618–1621)

      S. Matthias, J. Schilling, K. Nielsch, F. Müller, R.B. Wehrspohn and U. Gösele

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1618::AID-ADMA1618>3.0.CO;2-A

      A universal method for creating monodisperse modulated microwires (see Figure and inside front cover) is presented. A great amount of freedom is possible in the modulation period that can be generated, allowing the storage of information in the modulated wires. These wires can be used as barcodes in biotechnology or as building blocks for self-assembled three-dimensional objects.

    10. Nanoscale Particle Arrays Induced by Highly Ordered Protein Assemblies (pages 1621–1625)

      S. Behrens, K. Rahn, W. Habicht, K.-J. Böhm, H. Rösner, E. Dinjus and E. Unger

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1621::AID-ADMA1621>3.0.CO;2-D

      Nanowires are created by nucleation of nanometer-scaled noble metal particles on microtubules formed from highly ordered protein assemblies. The periodic functional groups of amino acids serve as active sites for nucleation and binding of the metallic nanoparticles to form ordered patterns of particles, which, by further particle growth, generate quasi-continuous metal coatings (see Figure).

    11. Oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) Excimers as Molecular Probes: Deformation-Induced Color Changes in Photoluminescent Polymer Blends (pages 1625–1629)

      C. Löwe and C. Weder

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1625::AID-ADMA1625>3.0.CO;2-Q

      Molecular sensors that allow monitoring of mechanical deformation or exposure to extreme temperatures could be facilitated by exploiting the variation of the emission color of blends of a host polymer and a low-molecular-weight photoluminescent dye. Due to excimer formation, the emission color (see Figure) strongly depends on the extent of aggregation of the sensor molecules, which is affected by the stimulus to be sensed.

    12. Inverse Opals for Optical Affinity Biosensing (pages 1629–1633)

      T. Cassagneau and F. Caruso

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1629::AID-ADMA1629>3.0.CO;2-2

      An affinity biosensor has been prepared from a conjugated copolymer inverse opal consisting of electropolymerized thiophene and 3-(hydroxymethyl)thiophene monomers, the latter being used to attach biotin to the pore surface (see Figure). Biospecific binding of avidin is demonstrated by monitoring changes in the bandgap spectral peak position caused by Bragg-diffraction of electromagnetic waves within the structure.

    13. Electrophosphorescent p–i–n Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Very-High-Efficiency Flat-Panel Displays (pages 1633–1636)

      M. Pfeiffer, S.R. Forrest, K. Leo and M.E. Thompson

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1633::AID-ADMA1633>3.0.CO;2-#

      Highly conductive doped charge-transport layers are used to demonstrate green electrophosphorescent light-emitting diodes (see Figure), with low operating voltages and high quantum efficiencies. These p–i–n type devices attain a brightness of 1000 cd m–2 at only 3 V, with an external quantum efficiency of 9 % and a power efficiency of 28 lm W–1 suitable for high-efficiency portable display and solid-state illumination applications.

    14. Fabrication of Multilayered Nanoporous Poly(methyl silsesquioxane) (pages 1637–1639)

      H.-C. Kim, J.B. Wilds, C.R. Kreller, W. Volksen, P.J. Brock, V.Y. Lee, T. Magbitang, J.L. Hedrick, C.J. Hawker and R.D. Miller

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1637::AID-ADMA1637>3.0.CO;2-C

      Multilayer nanoporous films generated by a layer-by-layer spin-on method are presented (see Figure). Precise control of the porosity of the individual layers that comprise the multilayer structure is demonstrated. Due to the simplicity of this fabrication method a wide range of potential applications in the areas of separation science, biotechnology, optics etc. are envisaged.

    15. Formation of Patterned Continuous Calcium Carbonate Films on Self-Assembled Monolayers via Nanoparticle-Directed Crystallization (pages 1640–1643)

      I. Lee, S.W. Han, S.J. Lee, H.J. Choi and K. Kim

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1640::AID-ADMA1640>3.0.CO;2-F

      The controlled growth of ceramic films on a solid substrate can be accomplished by using monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles as nucleation directors (see Figure). The combination of biomimetics and nanoscience/nanotechnologies such as that employed here should open up new possibilities to hitherto unknown smart composite materials having enhanced mechanical, physical, and chemical properties.

    16. Growth and Characterization of Well-Aligned nc-Si/SiOx Composite Nanowires (pages 1643–1646)

      J.-J. Wu, T.-C. Wong and C.-C. Yu

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1643::AID-ADMA1643>3.0.CO;2-Y

      The template- and catalyst-free synthesis of well-aligned nc-Si/SiOx composite nanowires (see Figure) is reported. Hot filament chemical vapor deposition on a catalyst-free substrate using a SiCl4/H2 mixture is the method used. Investigation of the photoluminescence characteristics of these composite nanowires reveals a broad emission band ranging from 420 to 585 nm.

    17. Facile Conversion of the Face-Centered Cubic Prussian-Blue Material K2[Mn2(CN)6] into the Spinel Oxide Mn3O4 at the Solid/Water Interface (pages 1646–1648)

      A. Buckelew, J.R. Galán-Mascarós and K.R. Dunbar

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1646::AID-ADMA1646>3.0.CO;2-G

      The preparation of crystalline Mn3O4 via a new, mild solution method is described. The polymeric Prussian-blue-type starting material decomposes at room temperature in the presence of water to give a pure product in high yield. The oxide shows typical structural features of Mn3O4, but the magnetic properties are different from traditionally prepared samples, with coercive fields four times larger than that of Hausmannite (see Figure).

    18. Site-Controlled Deposition of Microsized Particles Using an Electrostatic Assembly (pages 1649–1652)

      H. Fudouzi, M. Kobayashi and N. Shinya

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1649::AID-ADMA1649>3.0.CO;2-Z

      A new technique for the arrangement of microsized particles with site-controlled deposition has been demonstrated. Positively charged dots are drawn with a focused Ga+ ion beam. Monodisperse particles are selectively attracted to the electric field of the dots in a one-to-one relationship. Thus two-dimensional arrays of deposited spheres can be formed with controlled spacing (see Figure).

    19. Donor–Acceptor Functionalized Luminescent Hairpin Peptides: Electrochemiluminescence of Pyrene/Phenothiazine-Substituted Optically Active Systems (pages 1652–1655)

      J. Strauß and J. Daub

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1652::AID-ADMA1652>3.0.CO;2-1

      Three electrochemiluminescent octapeptides containing pyrene and phenothiazine chromophores are investigated via their spectral and electrochemical properties. The measurements prove the formation of excimers and exciplexes, which are generated intramolecularly on photonic activation and intermolecularly on electrochemical activation. The molecules investigated are of interest for optoelectronical applications such as the fabrication of new biosensors.

    20. Synthesis of Monodisperse Magnetic Methacrylate Polymer Particles (pages 1656–1658)

      B. Lindlar, M. Boldt, S. Eiden-Assmann and G. Maret

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1656::AID-ADMA1656>3.0.CO;2-E

      Monodisperse magnetic polymer colloids have been synthesized via a three-step procedure and evidence for the formation of homogeneously distributed magnetite particles in the polymer matrix is presented (see Figure). Owing to their magnetic behavior and uniform particle size, these colloids are perfect candidates for the fabrication of photonic bandgap materials.

    21. Controlled Hydrothermal Synthesis of Thin Single-Crystal Tellurium Nanobelts and Nanotubes (pages 1658–1662)

      M. Mo, J. Zeng, X. Liu, W. Yu, S. Zhang and Y. Qian

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1658::AID-ADMA1658>3.0.CO;2-2

      Thin single-crystal tellurium nanobelts and nanotubes have been created by the hydrothermal disproportionation of Na2TeO3 in aqueous ammonia solution, without the presence of any catalysts or templates. It appears that tellurium nanobelts with a helical pitch can be coaxed into chiral nanotubes under these conditions, presenting the promise of a new nanotube synthesis route (see Figure).

    22. Continuous Particle Self-Arrangement in a Long Microcapillary (pages 1662–1666)

      H. Wang, X. li, H. Nakamura, M. Miyazaki and H. Maeda

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2002 | DOI: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021118)14:22<1662::AID-ADMA1662>3.0.CO;2-#

      A new methodology to continuously produce particle arrangements in a long microcapillary has been developed, providing a rapid and cost-effective means to modify the inner surface (see Figure). The structure produced by this method has extensive applications in the microreactor field, such as catalysts (due to its large surface area), separation using the uniform voids between particles, and nanodevices using its controllable 3D structure.