• 1
    Chen, Y., Kuchroo, V. K., Inobe, J., Hafler, D. A. and Weiner, H. L., Regulatory T cell clones induced by oral tolerance: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Science 1994. 265: 12371240.
  • 2
    Powrie, F., Carlino, J., Leach, M. W., Mauze, S. and Coffman,R. L., A critical role for transforming growth factor-beta but not interleukin 4 in the suppression of T helper type 1-mediated colitis by CD45RB(low) CD4+ T cells. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 183: 26692674.
  • 3
    Khoo, U. Y., Proctor, I. E. and MacPherson, A. J. S., CD4+ T cell down regulation in human intestinal mucosa: evidence for intestinal tolerance to luminal bacterial antigens. J. Immunol. 1997. 158: (8): 36263634.
  • 4
    Groux, H., O'Garra, A., Bigler, M., Rouleau, M., Antonenko, S., de Vries, J. E. and Roncarolo, M. G., A CD4+ T cell subset inhibits antigen-specific T cell responses and prevents colitis. Nature 1997. 389: 737742.
  • 5
    Karlsson, M. R., Kahu, H., Hanson, L. A., Telemo, E. and Dahlgren, U. I., Neonatal colonization of rats induces immunological tolerance to bacterial antigens. Eur. J. Immunol. 1999. 29: 109118.
  • 6
    Mowat, A. M., Steel, M., Worthey, E. A., Kewin, P. J. and Garside, P., Inactivation of Th1 and Th2 cells by feeding ovalbumin. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 1996. 778: 122132.
  • 7
    Gonnella, P. A., Chen, Y., Inobe, J., Komagata, Y., Quartulli, M. and Weiner, H. L., In situ immune response in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) following oral antigen in TCR-transgenic mice. J. Immunol .1998. 160: 47084718.
  • 8
    Lundin, B. S., Karlsson, M. R., Svensson, L. A., Hanson, L. Å., Dahlgren, U. I. and Telemo, E., Active suppression in the draining lymph nodes of orally tolerised rats coincides with in situ TGF-ß mRNA and protein expression. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1999. 116: 181187.
  • 9
    Bruce, M. G. and Ferguson, A., Oral tolerance to ovalbumin in mice: studies of chemically modified and "biologically filtered" antigen. Immunology 1986. 57: 627630.
  • 10
    Peng, H. J., Turner, M. W. and Strobel, S., The generation of a "tolerogen" after ingestion of ovalbumin is time-dependent and unrelated to serum levels of immunoreactive antigen. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1990. 81: 510515.
  • 11
    Callery, M. P., Kamei, T. and Flye, M. W., The effect of portacaval shunt on delayed-hypersensitivity responses following antigen feeding. J. Surg. Res. 1989. 46: 391394.
  • 12
    Yang, R., Liu, Q., Grosfeld, J. L. and Pescovitz, M. D., Intestinalvenous drainage through the liver is a prerequisite for oral tolerance induction. J. Pediatr. Surg. 1994. 29: 11451148.
  • 13
    Karlsson, M. R., Kahu, H., Hanson, L. A., Telemo, E. and Dahlgren, U. I., Tolerance and bystander suppression, with involvement of CD25-positive cells, is induced in rats receiving serum from ovalbumin-fed donors. Immunology 2000. 100: 326333.
  • 14
    Furrie, E., Turner, M. W. and Strobel, S., Failure of SCID mice to generate an oral tolerogen after a feed of ovalbumin: a role for a functioning gut-associated lymphoid system. Immunology 1994. 83: 562567.
  • 15
    Zimmer, K. P., Buning, J., Weber, P., Kaiserlian, D. and Strobel, S., Modulation of antigen trafficking to MHC class II-positive late endosomes of enterocytes. Gastroenterology 2000. 118: 128137.
  • 16
    Hanson, D. G., Roy, M. J., Green, G. M. and Miller, S. D., Inhibition of orally-induced immune tolerance in mice by prefeeding an endopeptidase inhibitor. Reg. Immunol. 1993. 5: 7684.
  • 17
    Gregerson, D. S., Obritsch, W. F. and Donoso, L. A., Oral tolerance in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis: Distinct mechanisms of resistance are induced by low dose vs. high dose feeding protocols. J. Immunol. 1993. 151: 57515761.
  • 18
    Hershberg, R. M., Framson, P. E., Cho, D. H., Lee, L. Y., Kovats, S., Beitz, J., Blum, J. S. and Nepom, G. T., Intestinal epithelial cells use two distinct pathways for HLA class Ii antigen processing. J. Clin. Invest. 1997. 100: (1): 204215.
  • 19
    Miller, A., Lider, O., Abramsky, O. and Weiner, H. L., Orally administered myelin basic protein in neonates primes for immune responses and enhances experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in adult animals. Eur. J. Immunol. 1994. 24: 10261032.
  • 20
    Lundin, S. B., Dahlgren, U. I. H., Hanson, L. Å. and Telemo, E., Oral tolerization leads to active suppression and bystander tolerance in old rats while anergy dominates in young rats. Scand. J. Immunol. 1996. 43: 5663.
  • 21
    Desvignes, C., Bour, H., Nicolas, J. F. and Kaiserlian, D., Lack oforal tolerance but oral priming for contact sensitivity to dinitrofluorobenzene in major histocompatibility complex class Ii deficient mice and in CD4+ T cell depleted mice. Eur. J. Immunol. 1996. 26: (8): 17561761.
  • 22
    Kweon, M. N., Fujihashi, K., VanCott, J. L., Higuchi, K., Yamamoto, M., McGhee, J. R. and Kiyono, H., Lack of orally induced systemic unresponsiveness in IFN-gamma knockout mice. J. Immunol. 1998. 160: 16871693.
  • 23
    Kropshofer, H., Vogt, A. B., Moldenhauer, G., Hammer, J., Blum, J. S. and Hämmerling, G. J., Editing of the HLA-DR-peptide repertoire by HLA-DM. EMBO J. 1996. 15: 61446154.
  • 24
    Gonnella, P. A. and Wilmore, D. W., Co-localization of class II antigen and exogenous antigen in the rat enterocyte. J. Cell Sci. 1993. 106: 937940.
  • 25
    Strobel, S. and Mowat, A. M., Immune responses to dietary antigens: oral tolerance. Immunol. Today 1998. 19: 173181.
  • 26
    Bland, P. W. and Warren, L., Antigen presentation by epithelial cells of the rat small intestine I. Kinetics, antigen specificity and blocking by anti-Ia antisera. Immunology 1986. 58: 17.
  • 27
    Mayrhofer, G. and Spargo, L. D., Subcellular distribution of class II major histocompatibility antigens in enterocytes of the human and rat small intestine. Immunol. Cell Biol. 1989. 67: 251260.
  • 28
    Mayrhofer, G. and Spargo, L. D., Distribution of class II major histocompatibility antigens in enterocytes of the rat jejunum and their association with organelles of the endocytic pathway. Immunology 1990. 70: 1119.
  • 29
    Raposo, G., Nijman, H. W., Stoorvogel, W., Liejendekker, R., Harding, C. V., Melief, C. J. and Geuze, H. J., B lymphocytes secrete antigen-presenting vesicles. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 183: 11611172.
  • 30
    Zitvogel, L., Regnault, A., Lozier, A., Wolfers, J., Flament, C., Tenza, D., Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P., Raposo, G. and Amigorena, S., Eradication of established murine tumors using a novel cell-free vaccine: dendritic cell-derived exosomes. Nat. Med. 1998. 4: 594600.
  • 31
    Thery, C., Regnault, A., Garin, J., Wolfers, J., Zitvogel, L., Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P., Raposo, G. and Amigorena, S., Molecular characterization of dendritic cell-derived exosomes. Selective accumulation of the heat shock protein hsc73. J. Cell Biol. 1999. 147: 599610.
  • 32
    Karlsson, M., Dahlgren, U., Hanson, L. and Telemo, E., Ontogeny of the immune system in the small intestine of rats. Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 1995. 76: 110.
  • 33
    Terpend, K., Boisgerault, F., Blaton, M. A., Desjeux, J. F. and Heyman, M., Protein transport and processing by human HT29–19A intestinal cells: effect of interferon gamma. Gut 1998. 42: 538545.
  • 34
    Cerf-Bensussan, N., Quaroni, A., Kurnick, J. T. and Bhan, A. K., Intraepithelial lymphocytes modulate Ia expression by intestinal epithelial cells. J. Immunol. 1984. 132: 22442252.
  • 35
    Matsumoto, S., Setoyama, H., Imaoka, A., Okada, Y., Amasaki,H., Suzuki, K. and Umesaki, Y., Gamma delta TCR-bearing intraepithelial lymphocytes regulate class II major histocompatibility complex molecule expression on the mouse small intestinal epithelium. Epithelial Cell Biol. 1995. 4: 163170.
  • 36
    Matsumoto, S., Nanno, M., Watanabe, N., Miyashita, M., Amasaki, H., Suzuki, K. and Umesaki, Y., Physiological roles of gammadelta T cell receptor intraepithelial lymphocytes in cytoproliferation and differentiation of mouse intestinal epithelial cells. Immunology 1999. 97: 1825.
  • 37
    Bland, P. W. and Whiting, C. V., Antigen processing by isolated rat intestinal villus enterocytes. Immunology 1989. 68: 497502.
  • 38
    Matsuno, K., Ezaki, T., Kudo, S. and Uehara, Y., A life stage of particle-laden rat dendritic cells in vivo: their terminal division, active phagocytosis, and translocation from the liver to the draining lymph. J. Exp. Med. 1996. 183: 18651878.
  • 39
    Ishido, N., Matsuoka, J., Matsuno, T., Nakagawa, K. and Tanaka, N., Induction of donor-specific hyporesponsiveness and prolongation of cardiac allograft survival by jejunal administration of donor splenocytes. Transplantation 1999. 68: 13771382.
  • 40
    Nakano, Y., Monden, M., Valdivia, L. A., Gotoh, M., Tono, T. and Mori, T., Permanent acceptance of liver allografts by intraportal injection of donor spleen cells in rats. Surgery 1992. 111: 668676.
  • 41
    Kobayashi, E., Kamada, N., Enosawa, S., Toyama, N., Walker, N. I. and Miyata, M., Prevention by liver transplantation of the graft-versus-host reaction and allograft rejection in a rat model of small bowel transplantation. Transplantation 1994. 57: 177181.
  • 42
    Knolle, P. A., Uhrig, A., Hegenbarth, S., Loser, E., Schmitt, E., Gerken, G. and Lohse, A. W., IL-10 down-regulates T cell activation by antigen-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells through decreased antigen uptake via the mannose receptor and lowered surface expression of accessory molecules. Clin. Exp. Immunol 1998. 114: 427433.
  • 43
    Knolle, P. A., Schmitt, E., Jin, S., Germann, T., Duchmann, R., Hegenbarth, S., Gerken, G. and Lohse, A. W., Induction of cytokine production in naive CD4(+) T cells by antigen-presenting murine liver sinusoidal endothelial cells but failure to induce differentiation toward Th1 cells. Gastroenterology 1999. 116:14281440.
  • 44
    Herias, M. V., Hessle, C., Telemo, E., Midtvedt, T., Hanson,L. Å. and Wold, A. E., Immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus plantarum colonizing the intestine of gnotobiotic rats. Clin. Exp. Immunol 1999. 116: 283290.
  • 45
    Knolle, P. A., Germann, T., Treichel, U., Uhrig, A., Schmitt, E., Hegenbarth, S., Lohse, A. W. and Gerken, G., Endotoxin down-regulates T cell activationby antigen-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. J. Immunol. 1999. 162: 14011407.
  • 46
    Wannemuehler, M. J., Kiyono, H., Babb, J. L., Michalek, S. M. and McGhee, J. R., Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) regulation of the immune response: LPS converts germ-free mice to sensitivity to oral tolerance induction. J. Immunol. 1982. 129: 959965.
  • 47
    Khoury, S. J., Hancock, W. W. and Weiner, H. L., Oral tolerance to myelin basic protein and natural recovery from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis are associated with down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and differential up-regulation of transforming growth factor beta, interleukin 4, and prostaglandin E expression in the brain. J. Exp. Med. 1992. 176: 13551364.
  • 48
    Kiyono, H., McGhee, J. R., Wannemuehler, M. J. and Michalek, S. M., Lack of oral tolerance in C3H/HeJ mice. J. Exp. Med. 1982. 155: 605610.