Neutrophils produce biologically active macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α) / CCL20 and MIP-3β / CCL19



Macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α) / CCL20 and MIP-3β / CCL19 are members of the CC chemokine subfamily which exert their effects through specific receptors, CCR6 and CCR7, respectively. Previously, we have reported that human neutrophils have the capacity to produce a number of chemokines, including IL-8 / CXCL8, GROα / CXCL1, IP-10 / CXCL10, and MIG / CXCL9. Herein, we show that neutrophils also have the ability to express and release MIP-3α / CCL20 and MIP-3β / CCL19 when cultured with either LPS or TNF-α. We also report that MIP-3α / CCL20 and MIP-3β / CCL19 production by LPS-stimulated neutrophils is negatively modulated by IL-10. Remarkably, we found that supernatants harvested from stimulated neutrophils not only induced chemotaxis of both immature and mature dendritic cells (DC), but also triggered rapid integrin-dependent adhesion of CCR6- and CCR7-expressing lymphocytes to purified VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, respectively. Importantly, both chemotaxis and rapid integrin-dependent adhesion were dramatically suppressed by anti-MIP-3α / CCL20 and anti-MIP-3β / / CCL19 neutralizing antibodies, indicating that MIP-3α / CCL20 and MIP-3β / CCL19 present in the supernatants were both biologically active. As these chemokines are primarily chemotactic for DC and specific lymphocyte subsets, the ability ofneutrophils to produce MIP-3α / CCL20 and MIP-3β / CCL19 might be significant in orchestrating the recruitment of these cell types to the inflamed sites and therefore in contributing to theregulation of the immune response.