• 1
    Asherson RA. Adrenal, hepatic, and other intraabdominal manifestations in the antiphospholipid syndrome. In: AshersonRA, CerveraR, PietteJC, ShoenfeldY editors. The antiphospholipid syndrome. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press; 1996. p. 18393.
  • 2
    Cappell MS, Mikhail N, Gujral N. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage and intestinal ischemia associated with anticardiolipin antibodies. Dig Dis Sci 1994;39: 135964.
  • 3
    Piette JC. Diagnostic and classification criteria for the antiphospholipid/cofactors syndrome: a “mission impossible”? Lupus 1996;5: 35463.
  • 4
    Lopez-Soto A, Cervera R, Font J, Bové A, Reverter JC, Munoz FJ, et al. Isotype distribution and clinical significance of antibodies to cardiolipin, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylserine in systemic lupus erythematosus: prospective analysis of a series of 92 patients. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1997;15: 1439.
  • 5
    Yodfat O, Blank M, Krause I, Shoenfeld Y. The pathogenic role of anti-phosphatidylserine antibodies: active immunization with the antibodies leads to the induction of antiphospholipid syndrome. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 1996;78: 1420.
  • 6
    Asherson RA, Piette JC. The catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome 1996: acute multi-organ failure associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: a review of 31 patients. Lupus 1996;5: 4147.
  • 7
    Petri M. Pancreatitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: still in search of a mechanism. J Rheumatol 1992;19: 10146.
  • 8
    Barie PS, Fischer E. Acute acalculous cholecystitis. J Am Coll Surgeons 1995;180: 23244.
  • 9
    Warren BL. Small vessel occlusion in acute acalculous cholecystitis. Surgery 1992;111: 1638.
  • 10
    Simons RK, Sinanan MN, Coldwell DM. Gangrenous cholecystitis as a complication of hepatic artery embolization: case report. Surgery 1992;112: 10610.
  • 11
    Moolenaar W, Lamers CBHW. Cholesterol crystal embolization to liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Dig Dis Sci 1996;41: 181922.
  • 12
    Parangi S, Oz MC, Blume RS, Bixon R, Laffey KJ, Perzin KH, et al. Hepatobiliary complications of polyarteritis nodosa. Arch Surg 1991;126: 90912.
  • 13
    Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 42-1989. N Engl J Med 1989;321: 110318.
  • 14
    Swanepoel CR, Floyd A, Allison H, Learmonth GM, Cassidy MJD, Pascoe MD. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating systemic lupus erythematosus: case report and review. BMJ 1983;286: 2512.
  • 15
    Newbold KM, Allum WH, Downing R, Symmons DPM, Oates GD. Vasculitis of the gall bladder in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Clin Rheumatol 1987;6: 2879.
  • 16
    Raijman I, Schrager M. Hemorrhagic acalculous cholecystitis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Am J Gastroenterol 1989;84: 4457.
  • 17
    Piette JC, Cacoub P, Wechsler B. Renal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1994;23: 35766.