• 1
    Guccione AA, Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Anthony JM, Zhang Y, Wilson PWF, et al. The effects of specific medical conditions on the functional limitations of elders in the Framingham Study. Am J Public Health 1994; 84: 3517.
  • 2
    Maurer K. Basic data on arthritis: knee, hip, and sacroiliac joints, in adults aged 25-74 years: United States, 1971-1975. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 11 1979; 213: 120.
  • 3
    McAlindon TE, Snow S, Cooper C, Dieppe PA. Radiographic patterns of osteoarthritis of the knee joint in the community: the importance of the patellofemoral joint. Ann Rheum Dis 1992; 51: 8449.
  • 4
    Nordin M, Frankel VH. Biomechanics of the knee. In: NordinM, FrankelVH, editors. Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger; 1989. p. 11534.
  • 5
    McAlindon T, Zhang Y, Hannan M, Naimark A, Weissman B, Castelli W, et al. Are risk factors for patellofemoral and tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis different? J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 3327.
  • 6
    Iwano T, Kurosawa H, Tokuyama H, Hoshikawa Y. Roentgenographic and clinical findings of patellofemoral osteoarthrosis. Clin Orthop 1990; 252: 1908.
  • 7
    Ficat RP, Hungerford DS. Biomechanics. In: FicatRP, HungerfordDS, editors. Disorders of the patellofemoral joint. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1977. p. 2235.
  • 8
    Hungerford DS, Barry M. Biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint. Clin Orthop 1979; 144: 915.
  • 9
    Huberti HH, Hayes WC. Patellofemoral contact pressures: the influence of Q-angle and tendofemoral contact. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1984; 66-A: 71524.
  • 10
    Ficat RP, Hungerford DS. Chondrosis and arthrosis, a hypothesis. In: FicatRP, HungerfordDS, editors. Disorders of the patellofemoral joint. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins; 1977. p. 194232.
  • 11
    Dieppe P, Altman RD, Buckwalter JA, Felson DT, Hascall V, Lohmander LS, et al. Standardization of methods used to assess the progression of osteoarthritis of the hip or knee joints. In: KuettnerKE, GoldbergVM, editors. Osteoarthritic disorders. Rosemont (IL): American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 1995. p. 48196.
  • 12
    Task Force of the Osteoarthritis Research Society. Special report: design and conduct of clinical trials in patients with osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1996; 4: 21744.
  • 13
    Buckland-Wright CB. Protocols for precise radio-anatomical positioning of the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compartments of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1995; 3 SupplA: 7180.
  • 14
    Moreland JR, Bassett LW, Hanker GJ. Radiographic analysis of the axial alignment of the lower extremity. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1987; 69-A: 7459.
  • 15
    Chao EYS, Neluheni EVD, Hsu RWW, Paley D. Biomechanics of malalignment. Orthop Clin North Am 1994; 25: 37986.
  • 16
    Tetsworth K, Paley D. Malalignment and degenerative arthropathy. Orthop Clin North Am 1994; 25: 36777.
  • 17
    Hsu RWW, Himeno S, Coventry MB, Chao EYS. Normal axial alignment of the lower extremity and load-bearing distribution at the knee. Clin Orthop 1990; 255: 21527.
  • 18
    Cooke TDV, Li J, Scudamore RA. Radiographic assessment of bony contributions to knee deformity. Orthop Clin North Am 1994; 25: 38793.
  • 19
    Hilding MB, Lanshammar H, Ryd L. A relationship between dynamic and static assessments of knee joint load: gait analysis and radiography before and after knee replacement in 45 patients. Acta Orthop Scand 1995; 66: 31720.
  • 20
    Goldberg VM, Kettelkamp DB, Coyler RA. Osteoarthritis of the knee. In: MoskowitzRW, HowellDS, GoldbergVM, MankinHJ, editors. Osteoarthritis: diagnosis and medical/surgical management. Pennsylvania: WB Saunders; 1992. p. 599620.
  • 21
    Harrison MM, Cooke TDV, Fisher SB, Griffin MP. Patterns of knee arthrosis and patellar subluxation. Clin Orthop 1994; 309: 5663.
  • 22
    Eckhoff DG. Effect of limb malrotation on malalignment and osteoarthritis. Orthop Clin North Am 1994; 25: 40514.
  • 23
    Takai S, Sakakida K, Yamashita F, Suzu F, Izuta F. Rotational alignment of the lower limb in osteoarthritis of the knee. Int Orthop 1985; 9: 20916.
  • 24
    Cooper C, McAlindon T, Snow S, Vines K, Young P, Kirwan J, et al. Mechanical and constitutional risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: differences between medial tibiofemoral and patellofemoral disease. J Rheumatol 1994; 21: 30713.
  • 25
    Cicuttini FM, Baker JR, Spector TD. The association of obesity with osteoarthritis of the hand and knee in women: a twin study. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 12216.
  • 26
    Kujala UM, Kettunen J, Paananen H, Aalto T, Battié MC, Impivaara O, et al. Knee osteoarthritis in former runners, soccer players, weight lifters, and shooters. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 53946.
  • 27
    Spector TD, Harris PA, Hart DJ, Cicuttini FM, Nandra D, Etherington J, et al. Risk of osteoarthritis associated with long-term weight-bearing sports: a radiologic survey of the hips and knees in female ex-athletes and population controls. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 98895.