SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Scott JC, Hochberg MC. Arthritic and other musculoskeletal diseases. In: BrownsonRC, RemintonPL, DavisJR, editors. Chronic disease epidemiology and control. 2nd ed. Washington (DC): American Public Health Association; 1993. p. 46589.
  • 2
    Hochberg MC, Williamson J, Kasper JD, Fried LP. Musculoskeletal disability in elderly community-dwelling women: data from the Women's Health and Aging Study. In: FengPH, editor. Proceedings of the XIXth ILAR Congress of Rheumatology. Singapore: Communication Consultants; 1997. p. 2068.
  • 3
    Lawrence RC, Helmick CG, Arnett FC, Deyo RA, Felson DT, Giannini EH, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal disorders in the United States. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 77899.
  • 4
    American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Osteoarthritis Guidelines. Recommendations for the medical management of osteoarthritis of the hip and knee: 2000 update. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 190515.
  • 5
    Blackshear JL, Napier JS, Davidman M, Stillman MT. Renal complications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1985; 14: 16375.
  • 6
    Gabriel SE, Jaakkimainen L, Bombardier C. Risk for serious gastrointestinal complications related to use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115: 78796.
  • 7
    Smalley WE, Griffin MR. The risks and costs of upper gastrointestinal disease attributable to NSAIDs. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1996; 25: 37396.
  • 8
    Hernandez-Diaz S, Garcia-Rodriguez LA. Association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding/performation. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 20939.
  • 9
    Puett DW, Griffin MR. Published trials of nonmedicinal and noninvasive therapies for hip and knee osteoarthritis. Ann Intern Med 1994; 121: 133-40.
  • 10
    Paramore LC. Use of alternative therapies: estimates from the 1994 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation National Access to Care Survey. J Pain Symptom Manage 1997; 13: 839.
  • 11
    Diehl DL, Kaplan G, Coulter I, Glik D, Hurwitz EL. Use of acupuncture by American physicians. J Altern Complement Med 1997; 3: 11926.
  • 12
    Lytle CD. An overview of acupuncture. Washington (DC): United States Government Printing Office. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration; 1993.
  • 13
    Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, Jenkinson C, Reynolds DJM, Gavaghan DJ, et al. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 1996; 17: 112.
  • 14
    Van Tulder MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM. Conservative treatment of acute and chronic nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials of the most common interventions. Spine 1997; 22: 212856.
  • 15
    NIH Consensus Conference. Acupuncture. JAMA 1998; 280: 151824.
  • 16
    Bellamy N, Kirwan J, Boers M, Brooks P, Strand V, Tugwell P, et al. Recommendations for a core set of outcome measures for future phase III clinical trials in knee, hip, and hand osteoarthritis: consensus development at OMERACT III. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 799802.
  • 17
    Slavin RE. Best evidence synthesis: an intelligent alternative to meta-analysis. J Clin Epidemiol 1995; 48: 918.
  • 18
    Moher D, Pham B, Jones A, Cook DJ, Jadad AR, Moher M, et al. Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses? Lancet 1998; 352: 60913.
  • 19
    Birch S. An exploration with proposed solutions of the problems and issues in conducting clinical research in acupuncture [dissertation]. Exeter (UK): University of Exeter; 1997.
  • 20
    Pomeranz B. Acupuncture in America. APSJ 1994; 3: 96100.
  • 21
    Chen XH, Guo SF, Chang CG, Han JS. Optimal conditions for eliciting maximal electroacupuncture analgesia with a dense-and-disperse mode of stimulation. Am J Acupunct 1994; 22: 4753.
  • 22
    Berman BM, Singh BB, Lao L, Langenberg P, Li Y, Hadhazy V, et al. A randomized trial of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999; 38: 34654.
  • 23
    Christensen BV, Iuhl IU, Vilbek H, Bulow HH, Dreijer NC, Rasmussen HF. Acupuncture treatment of severe knee osteoarthrosis: a long-term study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1992; 36: 51925.
  • 24
    Takeda W, Wessel J. Acupuncture for the treatment of pain of osteoarthritic knees. Arthritis Care Res 1994; 7: 11822.
  • 25
    Molsberger A, Bowing G, Jensen KU, Lorek M. Schmerztherapie mit Akupunktur bei Gonarthrose: eine kontrollierte Studie zur analgetischen Wirkung der Akupunktur bei Gonarthrose. Der Schmerz 1994; 8: 3742.
  • 26
    Petrou P, Winkler V, Genti G, Balint G. Double blind trial to evaluate the effect of acupuncture treatment on knee osteoarthrosis. Scand J Acupunct 1988; 3: 1125.
  • 27
    Milligan JL, Glennie-Smith K, Dowson DI, Harris J. Comparison of acupuncture with physiotherapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knees [abstract]. 15th International Congress of Rheumatology; 1981; Paris.
  • 28
    Ammer K, Petschnig R. Vergleich der Wirksamkeit von Akupunktur und Physiotherapie bei ambulant Gonarthrose-patienten. Wien Med Wochenschr 1988; 138: 5669.
  • 29
    Fink MG, de Groot M, Kunsebeck HW, Gutenbruner CH, Lambrecht F, Gehrke A. Standardized acupuncture vs placebo-acupuncture in coxarthrosis [abstract]. Forsch Kompl Med 1996.
  • 30
    McIndoe AK, Young K, Bone ME. A comparison of acupuncture with intra-articular steroid injection as analgesia for osteoarthritis of the hip. British Medical Acupuncture Society; May 1994; Cheltenham, UK.
  • 31
    Dickens W, Lewith GT. A single-blind controlled and randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effect of acupuncture in the treatment of trapezio-metacarpal osteoarthritis. Comp Med Res 1989; 3: 58.
  • 32
    Lundeberg T, Eriksson SV, Lundeberg S, Thomas M. Effect of acupuncture and naloxone in patients with osteoarthritis pain: a sham acupuncture controlled study. Pain Clin 1991; 4: 15561.
  • 33
    Thomas M, Eriksson SV, Lundeberg T. A comparative study of diazepam and acupuncture in patients with osteoarthritis pain: a placebo controlled study. Am J Chin Med 1991; 19: 95100.
  • 34
    Gaw AC, Chang LW, Shaw LC. Efficacy of acupuncture on osteoarthritic pain: a controlled, double-blind study. N Engl J Med 1975; 293: 3758.
  • 35
    Junnila SYT. Acupuncture superior to piroxicam in the treatment of osteoarthrosis. Am J Acupunct 1982; 10: 3416.
  • 36
    Han J. Acupuncture activates endogenous systems of analgesia. NIH Consensus Development Conference on Acupuncture: program and abstracts; 1997 November 3–5; Bethesda, Maryland. p. 56.
  • 37
    Huang L, Ren MF, Lu JH, Han JS. Mutual potentiation of the analgesic effects of [met5] enkephalin, dynorphin A-(1-13) and morphine in the spinal cord of the rat. Acta Physiol Sin 1987; 39: 45461.
  • 38
    Sims J. The mechanism of acupuncture analgesia: a review. Complement Ther Med 1997; 5: 10211.
  • 39
    Lewith G, Vincent C. Evaluation of the clinical effects of acupuncture: a problem reassessed and a framework for future research. Pain Forum 1995; 4: 119.
  • 40
    Bellamy N, Buchanan WW, Goldsmith CH, Campbell J, Stitt LW. Validation study of WOMAC: a health status instrument for measuring clinically important patient relevant outcomes to antirheumatic drug therapy in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 183340.
  • 41
    Lao L, Ezzo J, Berman B, Hammerschlag R. Assessing clinical efficacy of acupuncture: considerations for designing future acupuncture trials. In: StuxG, HammerschlagR, editors. Scientific basis of acupuncture. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2000. p. 187210.
  • 42
    Gotzsche PC. Patients' preference in indomethacin trials: an overview. Lancet 1989; 1: 8891.
  • 43
    Balint G, Szebenyi B. Non-pharmacological therapies in osteoarthritis. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1997; 11: 795815.
  • 44
    Perrot S, Menkes CJ. Nonpharmacological approaches to pain in osteoarthritis: available options. Drugs 1996; 52 Suppl 3: 216.
  • 45
    Nicholas JJ. Physical modalities in rheumatological rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 75: 9941001.
  • 46
    Ernst E. Acupuncture as a symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1997; 26: 4447.
  • 47
    Birch S, Jamison RN. Controlled trial of Japanese acupuncture for chronic myofascial neck pain: assessment of specific and nonspecific effects of treatment. Clin J Pain 1998; 14: 24855.
  • 48
    Han JS. The future of acupuncture anesthesia: from acupuncture anesthesia (AA) to acupuncture-assisted anesthesia (AAA). Chin J Pain Med 1996; 2: 15.