• 1
    Wilson WA, Gharavi AE, Koike T, Lockshin MD, Branch DW, Piette JC, et al. International consensus statement on preliminary classification criteria for definite antiphospholipid syndrome: report of an international workshop. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 130911.
  • 2
    Roubey RAS. Immunology of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 144454.
  • 3
    Roubey RAS. Mechanisms of autoantibody-mediated thrombosis. Lupus 1998; 7: S1149.
  • 4
    De Groot GPG, Bouma B, Lutters BCH, Simmelink MJA, Derksen RHWM, Gros P. Structure-function studies on β2-glycoprotein I. J Autoimmun 2000; 15: 879.
  • 5
    Reddel SW, Wang YX, Sheng YH, Krilis SA. Epitope studies with anti–β2-glycoprotein I antibodies from autoantibody and immunized sources. J Autoimmun 2000; 15: 916.
  • 6
    Koike T, Ichikawa K, Atsumi T, Kasahara H, Matsuura E. β2-glycoprotein I-anti-β2-glycoprotein I interaction. J Autoimmun 2000; 15: 97100.
  • 7
    Meroni PL, Del Papa N, Raschi E, Panzeri P, Borghi MO, Tincani A, et al. Beta2-glycoprotein I as a “cofactor” for anti-phospholipid reactivity with endothelial cells. Lupus 1998; 7: S447.
  • 8
    Meroni PL, Raschi E, Camera M, Testoni C, Nicoletti F, Tincani A, et al. Endothelial activation by aPL: a potential pathogenetic mechanism for the clinical manifestations of the syndrome. J Autoimmun 2000; 15: 23740.
  • 9
    Pierangeli SS, Gharavi AE, Harris EN. Experimental thrombosis and antiphospholipid antibodies: new insights. J Autoimmun 2000; 15: 2417.
  • 10
    Del Papa N, Guidali L, Sala A, Buccellati C, Khamashta MA, Ichikawa K, et al. Endothelial cells as target for antiphospholipid antibodies: human polyclonal and monoclonal anti–β2-glycoprotein I antibodies react in vitro with endothelial cells through adherent β2-glycoprotein I and induce endothelial activation. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 55161.
  • 11
    Del Papa N, Guidali L, Spatola L, Bonara P, Borghi MO, Tincani A, et al. Relationship between anti-phospholipid and anti-endothelial cell antibodies III: beta 2 glycoprotein I mediates the antibody binding to endothelial membranes and induces the expression of adhesion molecules. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1995; 13: 17985.
  • 12
    Amengual O, Atsumi T, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR. The role of the tissue factor pathway in the hypercoagulable state in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromb Haemost 1998; 79: 27681.
  • 13
    Bruce IN, Gladman DD, Urowitz MB. Premature atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000; 26: 25778.
  • 14
    Harats D, George J, Levy Y, Khamashta MA, Hughes GR, Shoenfeld Y. Atheroma: links with antiphospholipid antibodies, Hughes syndrome and lupus. QJM 1999; 92: 579.
  • 15
    Ross R. Atherosclerosis: an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 1999; 340: 11526.
  • 16
    George J, Harats D, Gilburd B, Afek A, Levy Y, Schneiderman J, et al. Immunolocalization of β2-glycoprotein I (apolipoprotein H) to human atherosclerotic plaques: potential implications for lesion progression. Circulation 1999; 99: 222730.
  • 17
    George J, Afek A, Gilburd B, Blank M, Levy Y, Aron-Maor A, et al. Induction of early atherosclerosis in LDL-receptor-deficient mice immunized with β2-glycoprotein I. Circulation 1998; 98: 110815.
  • 18
    Shoenfeld Y, Harats D, George J. Heat shock protein 60/65, β2-glycoprotein I and oxidized LDL as players in murine atherosclerosis. J Autoimmun 2000; 15: 199202.
  • 19
    Hasunuma Y, Matsuura E, Makita Z, Katahira T, Nishi S, Koike T. Involvement of β2-glycoprotein I and anticardiolipin antibodies in oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophages. Clin Exp Immunol 1997; 107: 56973.
  • 20
    Grundy SM. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors for treatment of hypercholesterolemia. N Engl J Med 1988; 319: 2433.
  • 21
    Brown G, Albers JJ, Fisher LD, Schaefer SM, Lin JT, Kaplan C, et al. Regression of coronary artery disease as a result of intensive lipid-lowering therapy in men with high levels of apolipoprotein B. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 128998.
  • 22
    Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994; 344: 13839.
  • 23
    Furberg CD, Adams HP Jr, Applegate WB, Byington RP, Espeland MA, Hartwell T, et al. Effect of lovastatin on early carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Circulation 1994; 90: 167987.
  • 24
    Hebert PR, Gaziano JM, Chan KS, Hennekens CH. Cholesterol lowering with statin drugs, risk of stroke, and total mortality: an overview of randomized trials. JAMA 1997; 278: 31321.
  • 25
    Corsini A, Mazzotti M, Raiteri M, Soma MR, Gabbiani G, Fumagalli R, et al. Relationship between mevalonate pathway and arterial myocyte proliferation: in vitro studies with inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase. Atherosclerosis 1993; 101: 11725.
  • 26
    Terkeltaub R, Solan J, Barry M Jr, Santoro D, Bokoch GM. Role of the mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid synthesis in IL-8 generation by activated monocytic cells. J Leukoc Biol 1994; 55: 74955.
  • 27
    Kreuzer J, Bader J, Jahn L, Hautmann M, Kubler W, von Hodenberg E. Chemotaxis of the monocyte cell line U937: dependence on cholesterol and early mevalonate pathway products. Atherosclerosis 1991; 90: 2039.
  • 28
    Bellosta S, Via D, Canavesi M, Pfister P, Fumagalli R, Paoletti R, et al. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors reduce MMP-9 secretion by macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1998; 18: 16718.
  • 29
    Colli S, Eligini S, Lalli M, Camera M, Paoletti R, Tremoli E. Vastatins inhibit tissue factor in cultured human macrophages: a novel mechanism of protection against atherothrombosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 26572.
  • 30
    Laufs U, La Fata V, Plutzky J, Liao JK. Upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by HMG CoA reductase inhibitors. Circulation 1998; 97: 112935.
  • 31
    Essig M, Nguyen G, Prie D, Escoubet B, Sraer JD, Friedlander G. 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors increase fibrinolytic activity in rat aortic endothelial cells: role of geranylgeranylation and Rho proteins. Circ Res 1998; 83: 68390.
  • 32
    Camera M, Maderna P, Gaviraghi M, Tremoli E. Fluvastatin blocks NF-κB–mediated tissue factor induction in human endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis 1996; 133: 269.
  • 33
    Kureishi Y, Luo Z, Shiojima I, Bialik A, Fulton D, Lefer DJ, et al. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin activates the protein kinase Akt and promotes angiogenesis in normocholesterolemic animals. Nat Med 2000; 6: 100410.
  • 34
    Ichikawa K, Khamashta MA, Koike T, Matsuura E, Hughes GRV. β2-glycoprotein I reactivity of monoclonal anticardiolipin antibodies from patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 145361.
  • 35
    Del Papa N, Sheng YH, Raschi E, Kandiah DA, Tincani A, Khamashta MA, et al. Human β2-glycoprotein I binds to endothelial cells through a cluster of lysine residues that are critical for anionic phospholipid binding and offers epitopes for anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies. J Immunol 1998; 160: 55728.
  • 36
    Tincani A, Spatola L, Prati E, Allegri F, Ferremi P, Cattaneo R, et al. The anti-β2-glycoprotein I activity in human anti-phospholipid syndrome sera is due to monoreactive low-affinity autoantibodies directed to epitopes located on native β2-glycoprotein I and preserved during species' evolution. J Immunol 1996; 157: 57328.
  • 37
    Balestrieri G, Tincani A, Spatola L, Allegri F, Prati E, Cattaneo R, et al. Anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies: a marker of the antiphospholipid syndrome? Lupus 1995; 4: 12230.
  • 38
    Di Simone N, Meroni PL, Del Papa N, Raschi E, Caliandro D, De Carolis S, et al. Antiphospholipid antibodies affect trophoblast gonadotropin secretion and invasiveness by binding directly and through adhered β2-glycoprotein I. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 14050.
  • 39
    Del Papa N, Raschi E, Catelli L, Khamashta MA, Ichikawa K, Tincani A, et al. Endothelial cells as a target for antiphospholipid antibodies: role of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies. Am J Reprod Immunol 1997; 38: 2127.
  • 40
    Lowry O, Rosebrough N, Farr A, Randall R. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951; 193: 26575.
  • 41
    Maniatis T. Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory; 1989. p. 10.170.
  • 42
    Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem 1987; 162: 1569.
  • 43
    Carreras LO, Forastiero RR, Martinuzzo ME. Which are the best biological markers of the antiphospholipid syndrome? J Autoimmun 2000; 15: 16372.
  • 44
    Riboni M, Borghi MO, Luzzana C, Catelli L, Tedesco F, Khamashta MA, et al. Passive transfer of human affinity purified (a.p.) polyclonal IgG or monoclonal IgM anti-β2 GPI induces growth retardation in pregnant naive mice. J Autoimmun 2000; 15: A62.
  • 45
    Kimura M, Kurose I, Russell J, Granger DN. Effects of fluvastatin on leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in hypercholesterolemic rats. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17: 15216.
  • 46
    Hackman A, Abe Y, Insull W Jr, Pownall H, Smith L, Dunn K, et al. Levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in patients with dyslipidemia. Circulation 1996; 93: 13348.
  • 47
    Lefer AM, Campbell B, Shin YK, Scalia R, Hayward R, Lefer DJ. Simvastatin preserves the ischemic-reperfused myocardium in normocholesterolemic rat hearts. Circulation 1999; 100: 17884.
  • 48
    Pasceri V, Chang J, Willerson JT, Yeh ETH. Modulation of C-reactive protein-mediated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induction in human endothelial cells by anti-atherosclerosis drugs [abstract]. European Atherosclerosis Society Workshop on the Immune System in Atherosclerosis; 2001; Geneva, Switzerland.
  • 49
    Sadeghi MM, Collinge M, Pardi R, Bender JR. Simvastatin modulates cytokine-mediated endothelial cell adhesion molecule induction: involvement of an inhibitory G protein. J Immunol 2000; 165: 27128.
  • 50
    Mercurio F, Manning AM. Multiple signals converging on NF-κB. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1999; 11: 22632.
  • 51
    Tak PP, Firestein GS. NF-κB: a key role in inflammatory diseases. J Clin Invest 2001; 107: 711.
  • 52
    Kwak B, Mulhaupt F, Myit S, Mach F. Statins as a newly recognized type of immunomodulator. Nat Med 2000; 6: 1399402.
  • 53
    Farmer JA. Pleiotropic effects of statins. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000; 2: 20817.
  • 54
    Wojciak-Stothard B, Williams L, Ridley AJ. Monocyte adhesion and spreading on human endothelial cells is dependent on Rho-regulated receptor clustering. J Cell Biol 1999; 145: 1293307.