More than 30 years after the first Lunar Highlands Crust conference, lunar petrology and remote sensing experts from around the world gathered to discuss and debate the formation and evolution of the lunar highlands crust. Huge strides in orbital remote sensing have enabled researchers to put the samples gathered during the Apollo missions into a larger, global context, yet many of the original, key questions remain. What was the extent and fate of the lunar magma ocean (LMO)? What is the nature of the lower lunar crust? Do lunar sample ages still suggest that the inner solar system was subject to an increase in impact flux around 3.9 billion years ago? At the heart of these questions is the desire to understand not only the formation and evolution of the Moon but of Earth, the terrestrial planets, and the inner solar system as a whole.