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Post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry in the Iheya North hydrothermal field, Okinawa Trough

Authors

  • Shinsuke Kawagucci,

    Corresponding author
    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Precambrian Ecosystem Laboratory, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    3. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Junichi Miyazaki,

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Precambrian Ecosystem Laboratory, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    3. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Ryota Nakajima,

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Tatsuo Nozaki,

    1. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    3. Department of Systems Innovation School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Yutaro Takaya,

    1. Frontier Research Center for Energy and Resources, School of Engineering University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Yasuhiro Kato,

    1. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Institute for Research on Earth Evolution, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    3. Department of Systems Innovation School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
    4. Frontier Research Center for Energy and Resources, School of Engineering University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan
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  • Takazo Shibuya,

    1. Precambrian Ecosystem Laboratory, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Uta Konno,

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Yuzuru Nakaguchi,

    1. Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan
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  • Kenta Hatada,

    1. Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan
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  • Hisako Hirayama,

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Katsunori Fujikura,

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Yasuo Furushima,

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Hiroyuki Yamamoto,

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Tomo-o Watsuji,

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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  • Jun-ichiro Ishibashi,

    1. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi, Fukuoka, Japan
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  • Ken Takai

    1. Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    2. Precambrian Ecosystem Laboratory, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
    3. Submarine Resources Research Project, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan
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Abstract

[1] The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 331 investigated the Iheya North hydrothermal field in the Okinawa Trough. Several post-drilling underwater vehicle investigations were conducted over 2 years to identify post-drilling changes in fluid discharge pattern, mineral deposition, and fluid chemistry. Drilling-induced high-temperature hydrothermal fluid vents were identified at deep holes not only near the naturally occurring NBC hydrothermal fluid vent (Site C0016) but also at the seafloor ∼450 m distal to the NBC vent (Site C0014), where no hydrothermal fluid discharge was observed prior to drilling. A chimney structure at Hole C0016A grew rapidly at the NBC mound crest, where only small chimneys had been found before drilling. A drilling-induced diffuse hydrothermal flow region spread at Site C0014, and this area was newly colonized by the galatheid crab. From a fluid chemistry perspective, the post-drilling hydrothermal fluids were enriched in Cl relative to seawater, although this fluid chemistry was not observed during the 12 years prior to drilling. The Cl-enriched fluid reservoir underlying the subseafloor impermeable layers, observed by IODP Expedition 331, is likely source for the Cl-enriched fluids discharging from the post-drilling vents. The drilling-induced physical disturbance of subseafloor hydrogeological structures would release such fluids to the seafloor. In turn, the rapid chimney growth at the NBC mound crest may also be attributed to highly turbulent fluid flow with the enlarged artificial vent of Hole C0016A, which can contribute to the retention of the fluid-seawater mixture for a sufficiently long period to precipitate sulfide/sulfate minerals on the seafloor.

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