• Bruno, J. F., and E. R. Selig (2007), Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: Timing, extent, and subregional comparisons, PloS one, 2, e711.
  • Canadell, J. G., et al. (2007), Contributions to accelerating atmospheric CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sinks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104, 18,86618,870.
  • Cigliano, M., M. C. Gambi, R. Rodolfo-Metalpa, F. P. Patti, and J. M. Hall-Spencer (2010), Effects of ocean acidification on invertebrate settlement at volcanic CO2 vents, Marine Biology, 157, 24892502.
  • Cortes, J. (1997), Biology and geology of eastern Pacific coral reefs, Coral Reefs, 16, 3946.
  • Crook, E. D., D. Potts, M. Rebolledo-Vieyra, L. Hernandez, and A. Paytan (2011), Calcifying coral abundance near low-pH springs: Implications for future ocean acidification, Coral Reefs, 31, 239245.
  • Crook, E. D., A. L. Cohen, M. Rebolledo-Vieyra, L. Hernandez, and A. Paytan (2013), Reduced calcification and lack of acclimatization by coral colonies growing in areas of persistent natural acidification, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 110(27), 11,04411,049, doi:10.1073/pnas.1301589110.
  • Denman, K., J. R. Christian, N. Steiner, H.-O. Portner, and Y. Nojiri (2011), Potential impacts of future ocean acidification on marine ecosystems and fisheries: Current knowledge and recommendations for future research, ICES J. Mar. Sci., 68, 10191029.
  • Fabricius, K. E., C. Langdon, S. Uthicke, C. Humphrey, S. Noonan, G. De'ath, R. Okazaki, N. Muehllehner, M. S. Glas, and J. M. Lough (2011), Losers and winners in coral reefs acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations, Nat. Clim. Change, 1, 165169.
  • Field, C. B., et al., (2011), Workshop report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change workshop on impacts of ocean acidification on marine biology and ecosystems, pp. 164, Carnegie Institution, Stanford, Calif.
  • Gattuso, J. P., M. Pichon, B. Delesalle, and M. Frankignoulle (1993), Community metabolism and air–sea CO2 fluxes in a coral reef ecosystem (Moorea, French-Polynesia), Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 96, 259267.
  • Glynn, P. W., and M. W. Colgan (1992), Sporadic disturbances in fluctuating coral reef environments: El Niño and coral reef development in the Eastern Pacific, Am. Zool., 32, 707718.
  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2011), Coral reef ecosystems and anthropogenic climate change, Regional Environ. Change, 11, S215S227.
  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2012), The adaptation of coral reefs to climate change: Is the Red Queen being outpaced?, Sci. Mar., 76, 403408.
  • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., et al. (2007), Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification, Science, 318, 173742.
  • Keeling, C. D., et al. (2005), Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 exchange with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000: Observations and carbon cycle implications, in A History of Atmospheric CO2 and Its Effects on Plants, Animals, and Ecosystems 2, edited by J. R. Ehleringer, T. E. Cerling, and M. D. Dearing, pp. 83113, Springer, New York.
  • Kleypas, J. A., J. W. Mcmanus, and L. A. B. Meñez (1999), Environmental limits to coral reef development: Where do we draw the line?, Am. Zool., 39, 146159.
  • Le Quéré, C., et al. (2009), Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide, Nat. Geosci., 2, 831836.
  • Lee, K., L. T. Tong, F. J. Millero, C. L. Sabine, A. G. Dickson, C. Goyet, G.-H. Park, R. Wanninkhof, R. A. Feely, and R. M. Key (2006), Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L19605, doi:10.1029/2006GL027207.
  • Manzello, D. P. (2010), Ocean acidification hot spots: Spatiotemporal dynamics of the seawater CO2 system of eastern Pacific coral reefs, Limnol. Oceanogr., 55(1), 239248.
  • Manzello, D. P., J. A. Kleypas, D. A. Budd, C. M. Eakin, P. W. Glynn, and C. Langdon (2008), Poorly cemented coral reefs of the eastern tropical Pacific: Possible insights into reef development in a high-CO2 world, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105, 10,45010,455.
  • Raven, J., et al. (2005), Ocean Acidification Due to Increasing Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, pp. 60, The Royal Society, London.
  • Sabine, C. L., et al. (2011), The global ocean carbon cycle, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, S100S108.
  • Shamberger, K. E. F., R. A. Feely, C. L. Sabine, M. J. Atkinson, E. H. DeCarlo, F. T. Mackenzie, P. S. Drupp, and D. A. Butterfield (2011), Calcification and organic production on a Hawaiian coral reef, Mar. Chem., 127, 6475.
  • Silverman, J., B. Lazar, and J. Erez (2007a), Community metabolism of a coral reef exposed to naturally varying dissolved inorganic nutrient loads, Biogeochemistry, 84, 6782.
  • Silverman, J., B. Lazar, and J. Erez (2007b), Effect of aragonite saturation, temperature, and nutrients on the community calcification rate of a coral reef, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C05004, doi:10.1029/2006JC003770.
  • Solomon, S., et al. (2007), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, U.K., and New York.
  • Steinacher, M., F. Joos, T. L. Frolicher, G. K. Plattner, and S. C. Doney (2009), Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model, Biogeosciences, 6, 515533.