Decline of Arctic sea ice: Evaluation and weighting of CMIP5 projections
Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014
©2013. The Authors.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Volume 119, Issue 2, pages 546–554, 27 January 2014
How to Cite
2014), Decline of Arctic sea ice: Evaluation and weighting of CMIP5 projections, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 546–554, doi:10.1002/2013JD020593., and (
- Issue published online: 7 MAR 2014
- Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 23 DEC 2013 03:41AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 7 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Received: 19 JUL 2013
- EPSRC. Grant Number: EP/I014721/1
Trends of Arctic September sea ice area (SSIA) are investigated through analysis of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) data. The large range across models is reduced by weighting them according to how they match nine observed parameters. Calibration of this refined SSIA projection to observations of different 5 year averages suggests that nearly ice-free conditions, where ice area is less than 1 × 106 km2, will likely occur between 2039 and 2045, not accounting for internal variability. When adding internal variability, we demonstrate that ice-free conditions could occur as early as 2032. The 2013 rebound in ice extent has little effect on these projections. We also identify that our refined projection displays a change in the variability of SSIA, indicating a possible change in regime.