Testing the empirical shock arrival model using quadrature observations

Authors

  • N. Gopalswamy,

    Corresponding author
    1. Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
    • Corresponding author: N. Gopalswamy, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Bldg. 21, Rm. 170, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. (nat.gopalswamy@nasa.gov)

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  • P. Mäkelä,

    1. Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
    2. Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
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  • H. Xie,

    1. Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
    2. Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
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  • S. Yashiro

    1. Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA
    2. Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, District of Columbia, USA
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Abstract

[1] The empirical shock arrival (ESA) model was developed based on quadrature data from Helios (in situ) and P-78 (remote sensing) to predict the Sun-Earth travel time of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The ESA model requires earthward CME speed as input, which is not directly measurable from coronagraphs along the Sun-Earth line. The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) were in quadrature during 2010–2012, so the speeds of Earth-directed CMEs were observed with minimal projection effects. We identified a set of 20 full halo CMEs in the field of view of SOHO that were also observed in quadrature by STEREO. We used the earthward speed from STEREO measurements as input to the ESA model and compared the resulting travel times with the observed ones from L1 monitors. We find that the model predicts the CME travel time within about 7.3 h, which is similar to the predictions by the ENLIL model. We also find that CME-CME and CME-coronal hole interaction can lead to large deviations from model predictions.

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