Fogwater deposition modeling for terrestrial ecosystems: A review of developments and measurements


  • Genki Katata

    Corresponding author
    1. Research Group for Environmental Science, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan
    2. Now at Atmospheric Environmental Research, Institute of Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
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Recent progress in modeling fogwater (and low cloud water) deposition over terrestrial ecosystems during fogwater droplet interception by vegetative surfaces is reviewed. Several types of models and parameterizations for fogwater deposition are discussed with comparing assumptions, input parameter requirements, and modeled processes. The relationships among deposition velocity of fogwater (Vd) in model results, wind speed, and plant species structures associated with literature values are gathered for model validation. Quantitative comparisons between model results and observations in forest environments revealed differences as large as 2 orders of magnitude, which are likely caused by uncertainties in measurement techniques over heterogeneous landscapes. Results from the literature review show that Vd values ranged from 2.1 to 8.0 cm s−1 for short vegetation, whereas Vd = 7.7–92 cm s−1 and 0–20 cm s−1 for forests measured by throughfall-based methods and the eddy covariance method, respectively. This review also discusses the current understanding of the impacts of fogwater deposition on atmosphere-land interactions and over complex terrain based on results from numerical studies. Lastly, future research priorities in innovative modeling and observational approaches for model validation are outlined.