Vertical velocity in shallow convection for different plume types
Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014
© 2014. The Authors.
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Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Volume 6, Issue 2, pages 478–489, June 2014
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How to Cite
2014), Vertical velocity in shallow convection for different plume types, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 6, 478–489, doi:10.1002/2014MS000318., and (
- Issue published online: 23 JUL 2014
- Article first published online: 10 JUN 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 14 MAY 2014 04:44AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Revised: 2 MAY 2014
- Manuscript Received: 7 MAR 2014
- Major National Basic Research Program of China
- Global Change under . Grant Numbers: 2010CB951800, 973 , 2013CB955803
- CAS Strategic Priority Research . Grant Number: XDA05110303
- National Natural Science Foundation . Grant Number: 41305102
- convective plume;
- shallow convection;
- vertical velocity;
- large-eddy simulation
This study investigates the bulk budgets of the vertical velocity and its parameterization in convective cores, convective updrafts, and clouds by using large-eddy simulation (LES) of four shallow convection cases in the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) programs. The relative magnitudes of the dominant momentum budget terms for the three types of plumes are presented. For all shallow cumulus except stratocumulus, the buoyancy force and the subplume transport in the core plume are the momentum source that offset the pressure gradient force. In the cloud updraft and cloud plumes, the buoyancy source is dominant in the lower and middle parts of the clouds, while the subgrid transport is a dominant source in the upper part, and the entrainment term is also a momentum source. For the stratocumulus, the subplume transport is a sink almost in the whole convective layer. For all types of plumes, the Simpson and Wiggert (1969) equation is found to be good paramaterization of the mean plume vertical velocity when appropriate scaling coefficients to buoyancy and entrainment terms are used. Optimal forms of the Simpson and Wiggert equation are given for convective cores, convective updrafts, and convective clouds. Results are compared with other studies published in the literature.