• Arslan Erinmez, I., J. G. Kappenman, and W. A. Radasky (2002), Management of the geomagnetically induced current risks on the national grid company's electric power transmission system, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 64, 743756.
  • Béland, J., and K. Small (2004), Space weather effects on power transmission systems: The cases of Hydro-Québec and Transpower New Zealand Ltd, in Effects of Space Weather on Technological Infrastructure, edited by I. A. Daglis, pp. 287299, Kluwer Acad., Netherlands.
  • Bolduc, L. (2002), GIC observations and studies of the Hydro-Quebec power system, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 64, 17931802.
  • Boteler, D. H., R. J. Pirjola, and H. Nevanlinna (1998), The effects of geomagnetic disturbances on electrical systems at Earth's surface, Adv. Space Res., 22, 1727.
  • FEMA, and NOAA (2010), Managing Critical Disasters in the Transatlantic Domain—The Case of a Geomagnetic Storm, FEMA, Washington, D. C.
  • Forbes, K. F., and O. C. St. Cyr (2004), Space weather and the electricity market: An initial assessment, Space Weather, 2, S10003, doi:10.1029/2003SW000005.
  • Forbes, K. F., and O. C. St. Cyr (2008), Solar activity and economic fundamentals: Evidence from 12 geographically disparate power grids, Space Weather, 6, S10003, doi:10.1029/2007SW000350.
  • Forbes, K. F., and O. C. St. Cyr (2010), An anatomy of space weather's electricity market impact: Case of the PJM power grid and the performance of its 500 kV transformers, Space Weather, 8, S09004, doi:10.1029/2009SW000498.
  • Gaunt, C. T. (2013), Reducing uncertainty—An electricity utility response to severe solar storms, J. Space Weather Space Clim., 4, A01.
  • Grimes, D. A., and K. F. Schulz (2005), Compared to what? Finding controls for case-control studies, Lancet, 365, 14291433.
  • Hapgood, M. (2011), Lloyd's 360° Risk Insight—Space Weather: Its Impacts on Earth and the Implications for Business, Lloyd's, London, U. K.
  • JASON (2011), Impacts of Severe Space Weather on the Electric Grid (JSR-11-320), The MITRE Corporation, McLean, Va.
  • Jursa, A. S. (1985), Handbook of Geophysics and the Space Environment, Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Washington, D. C.
  • Kappenman, J. (2010), Geomagnetic storms and their impacts on the US power grid, Tech. Rep. Meta-R-319, Metatech Corp., Goleta, Calif.
  • Kappenman, J. G. (2005), An overview of the impulsive geomagnetic field disturbances and power grid impacts associated with the violent Sun-Earth connection events of 29–31 October 2003 and a comparative evaluation with other contemporary storms, Space Weather, 3, S08C01, doi:10.1029/2004SW000128.
  • Kappenman, J. G., L. J. Zanetti, and W. A. Radasky (1997), Geomagnetic storm forecasts and the power industry, Eos Trans. AGU, 78, 37.
  • Lineweber, D., and S. McNulty (2001), The Cost of Power Disturbances to Industrial and Digital Economy Companies, PRIMEN, Madison, WI.
  • Schrijver, C. J., and S. D. Mitchell (2013), Disturbances in the US electric grid associated with geomagnetic activity, J. Space Weather Space Clim., 3, A19.
  • Schulz, K. F., and D. A. Grimes (2002), Case-control studies: Research in reverse, Lancet, 359, 431434.
  • Space Studies Board (2008), Severe Space Weather Events—Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts, National Academy Press, Washington, D. C.
  • Wacholder, S., D. T. Silverman, J. K. McLaughlin, and J. S. Mandel (1992), Selection controls in case-control studies, Am. J. Epidemiol., 135, 10421050.
  • Wik, M., R. Pirjola, H. Lundstedt, A. Viljanen, P. Wintoft, and A. Pulkkinen (2009), Space weather events in July 1982 and October 2003 and the effects of geomagnetically induced currents on Swedish technical systems, Ann. Geophys., 27, 17751787.
  • Wise, C., and M. Benjamin (2013), Illuminating results: INL broadens understanding of solar storms. [Available at]