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1-Dodecanol [MAK Value Documentation, 2006]

Published Online: 31 JAN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/3527600418.mb11253kske0022

The MAK Collection for Occupational Health and Safety

The MAK Collection for Occupational Health and Safety

How to Cite

2012. 1-Dodecanol [MAK Value Documentation, 2006]. The MAK Collection for Occupational Health and Safety. 117–132.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 31 JAN 2012
Table 1. Irritative effects of 1-dodecanol in humans
Test, duration of exposure, collectiveConcentration, vehicle, purityEffects or number of reactions (strength of the reaction), time of readingReferences
Test persons
patch test, semi-occlusive, 4 hundiluted0/29Basketter et al. 1997
patch test, semi-occlusive, 4 h positive controlundiluted 20 % sodium dodecyl sulfate in water0/20 4/20, only weak reaction, not significantly stronger than with 1-dodecanolHenkel 1996
patch test, occlusive, 24 h, outside upper arm50 % in petrolatum0/4, read after 24, 48 and 72 hKästner 1977
patch test, occlusive, 24 h0.5–2.0 M petrolatum (about 11 to 44 %)slight irritation (0–0.1 on a scale of 0 to 2), read after 1 hSato et al. 1996
repeated non-occlusive application, 60 × in 30 min to the same site on the forearm5 %, solvent not statedneither subjective complaints nor objective symptoms of irritationHenkel 1981b
patch test, occlusive, 48 h4 % in petrolatum0/25Opdyke 1973b
Duhring chamber scarification test, scarified skin, occlusive, 1×/day, 3 days, 5–10 healthy, young, pale-skinned Caucasians with a high tendency towards irritation25 % in mineral oil, controls: mineral oilmarked irritation (2.5–4 on a scale from 0–4), after 30 min not irritativeFrosch and Kligman 1976
Patients
patch test, occlusive, 40 consecutive patients of a dermatological clinic with eczema, but without allergy to ointment bases containing wool wax alcohol1 % in CCl4, purity not statednot primarily toxic (irritative)Peter et al. 1969
Table 2. Sensitizing effects of 1-dodecanol in humans
Test, duration of exposure, collectiveConcentrationa, vehicle, purityEffects or number of reactions (strength of the reaction); time of readingReferences
  1. a

    recommended test concentration: 20 % in petrolatum (Rietschel and Fowler 1995)

Test persons
maximization test4 % in petrolatum0/25Kligman 1966
Patients
patch test according to the ICDRG standard, 24 h, 51 (24 ♀/27 ♂)/171 patients of a dermatological clinic with positive results in patch tests to 30 % wool wax in petrolatum and contact dermatitis, mainly after the use of external therapeutic agents, and suspected sensitization to ointment bases30 % in petrolatum, purity not stated13/51 (1+), 9/51 (2+ or 3+), scale: 0 to 4+, clinically relevant; read after 24, 48 and 72 hAuth et al. 1984
patch test, consecutive dermatitis patients of a dermatological clinic with contact with topical cosmetic or medical preparations, no other details5 % in petrolatum 10 % in petrolatum purity > 95 %4/1664 15/1664 concentrations not irritative, no other detailsHjorth and Trolle-Lassen 1963
patch test, 48 h, patients of a dermatological clinic with suspected allergy to topical preparations, 108 ♀, 38 ♂5 % in petrolatum purity > 99 %0/146; read on days 2, 3 and 7Tosti et al. 1996
patch test, no other details, consecutive patients of a dermatological clinic with proven allergy to ointment bases containing wool wax alcohol1 % in carbon tetrachloride, purity not statedabout 16 % of 30 (48 h); unclear whether several readings taken to observe crescendo reactionsPeter et al. 1969
Case reports   
patch test, female patient with tinea pedis and ulcus cruris and for over two years contact dermatitis to topical medicines containing 1-dodecanol20 % in petrolatum, purity not statednegative results, no other detailsIshiguro and Kawashima 1991
patch test, 48 h, patient with itching lesions on an amputation stump after using a cream containing small amounts of 1-dodecanol23.1 % in petrolatum purity 99.6 %negative results; read after 48 and 72 hKomamura et al. 1997
Table 3. Acute oral toxicity of 1-dodecanol
 LD50 [mg/kg body weight]References
rat33220 (> 40 ml/kg body weight)Procter & Gamble 1999
rat >10600 (> 12.8 ml/kg body weight)Rowe and McCollister 1982
rat> 10600Lington and Bevan 1994
rat> 26500Egan and Portwood 1974, Noweck and Ridder 1987
rat >5000Henkel 1981a
mouse >3125Henkel 1981b
rabbit> 29900 (> 36 ml/kg body weight)Treon 1963
Table 4. Irritative effects of 1-dodecanol on the skin of rabbits, guinea pigs, rats and hairless mice
Species, test, site of application, duration of actionConcentration, vehicle, purityEffects (strength of the reaction); time of readingReferences
  1. a

    Evaluated according to OECD: PII (primary irritation index): 0–0.5 not irritative, 0.6–3.0 mildly irritative, 3.1–5.0 moderately irritative, 5.1–8.0 strongly irritative

Single applications   
Rabbit   
Draize test, 24 hnot statedmoderately irritative (PIIa4.6/8)Procter & Gamble 1999
patch test, 24 h, shaved dorsal skin50 % in petrolatummoderately irritative, score: 4/5; 24, 48 and 72 h after applicationKästner 1977
FDA method,undilutedPIIa2.9/8Iwata et al.
occlusive, 24 h50 % in squalenePIIa1.7/81987
 50 % in castor oilPIIa0.6/8 
 50 % in triethyl citratePIIa1.4/8 
  all mildly irritative; 1, 24 and 48 h after application, evaluated according to OECD test guideline 404 
patch test, 4 h5 %, solvent not statedmildly irritativeHenkel 1981b
Guinea pig   
patch test, 24 h, shaved dorsal skin50 % in petrolatumonly in some animals slight, rapidly regressing reactions, score 2/5, slight irritation; 24, 48 and 72 h after applicationKästner 1977
Hairless mouse   
patch test, 24 h, dorsal skin50 % in petrolatumonly in some animals slight, rapidly regressing reactions, score 2/5, slight irritation; 24, 48 and 72 h after applicationKästner 1977
FDA method,undilutedPIIa2.1/8Iwata et al.
occlusive, 24 h50 % in squalenePIIa1.8/81987
 50 % in castor oilPIIa1.2/8 
 50 % in triethyl citratePIIa1.3/8 
  all mildly irritative; 1, 24 and 48 h after removal of the plaster, evaluated according to OECD test guideline 404 
Repeated application
Rat
8 weeks, no other detailsundiluted 100, 500 or 2000 mg/kg body weightabrasion of the skin, no other detailsDanish National Food Agency 1992
Hairless mouse
2 ×/day, 10 workdays, no solvent control5 %, no other detailsmild irritation; 24, 48 and 72 h after applicationHenkel 1981b
Table 5. Irritative effects of 1-dodecanol on the rabbit eye
TestConcentration, vehicle, purityEffectsReferences
  1. a

    Evaluated according to OECD: PII (primary irritation index): 0–10 not irritative; 11–25 mildly irritative; 26–56 moderately irritative; 57–110 strongly irritative

OECD test guideline 405undiluted, technical gradenot irritativeHenkel 1988
Draize test, no other details 26.7/110, moderately irritativeaProcter & Gamble 1999
Draize test, unrinsed rabbit eye70 % with 30 % 1-tetradecanolbarely perceptible reddening of the conjunctiva, 2 and 6 h, but not 24 h after instillationHenkel 1980
Draize test 0.1 ml1-dodecanol and 1-tetradecanol1 h: 9.3/100; not irritativeProcter & Gamble 1999
Draize test, no other details5 %, solvent not statedslightly irritative, 2 and 24 h after instillation: conjunctival reactions less than 10 % of the maximum possible reaction, 48 h after instillation: conjunctiva normal, cornea and iris normal at all timesHenkel 1981b