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Biological Effects of Electromagnetic and Particle Radiation

  1. Jürgen Kiefer

Published Online: 15 AUG 2009

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap037.pub2

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Kiefer, J. 2009. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic and Particle Radiation. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. 743–808.

Author Information

  1. University of Gießen, Gießen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 AUG 2009

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

  • 1
    Introduction
  • 2
    Radiation Types and Sources
  • 3
    Interaction with Biosystems at the Physical Level
    • 3.1
      Ionizing Radiation
      • 3.1.1
        Electromagnetic Radiation
      • 3.1.2
        Particle Radiation
    • 3.2
      Optical Radiation
    • 3.3
      Radio Frequency and Microwaves
  • 4
    Deposition of Energy
    • 4.1
      Ionizing Radiation
    • 4.2
      UV and Visible Radiation
    • 4.3
      Infrared
    • 4.4
      Radio Frequency and Microwaves
  • 5
    Effects on Molecules of Biological Importance and Cell Organelles
    • 5.1
      Water
    • 5.2
      Photochemistry and Radiation Chemistry of DNA
    • 5.3
      Chromosomal Aberrations
    • 5.4
      Membranes
    • 5.5
      Effects of Heat Treatment
    • 5.6
      Specific Molecular Aspects of Radio Frequency and Microwave Actions
  • 6
    Cellular Effects
    • 6.1
      Experimental Endpoints of Cellular Radiation Action
      • 6.1.1
        Survival
      • 6.1.2
        Mutations
      • 6.1.3
        Neoplastic Transformation
    • 6.2
      Modifications of Cellular Radiation Effects
      • 6.2.1
        The Temporal Pattern of Exposure
      • 6.2.2
        Chemical Protectors and Sensitizers
      • 6.2.3
        Repair Processes
      • 6.2.4
        Radiation Quality
      • 6.2.5
        “Nonclassical” Effects in Cellular Radiobiology: Bystander Effect, Genomic Instability, Low Dose Sensitivity, and Adaptive Response
    • 6.3
      Heat Effects at the Cellular Level
    • 6.4
      Specific Cellular Effects of Radio Frequency and Microwaves
  • 7
    Organ and Whole-Body Effects
    • 7.1
      Acute Effects
      • 7.1.1
        Skin
      • 7.1.2
        Eye
      • 7.1.3
        Nervous System and Other Organs
      • 7.1.4
        Radiation Syndromes and Lethality
    • 7.2
      Radiation and Progeny
      • 7.2.1
        Fertility
      • 7.2.2
        Teratogenic Effects
      • 7.2.3
        Genetic Effects
    • 7.3
      Radiation Cancerogenesis
      • 7.3.1
        Ultraviolet Radiation
      • 7.3.2
        Ionizing Radiation
    • 7.4
      Tissue and Whole-Body Effects of Infrared Radiation
    • 7.5
      Tissue and Whole-Body Effects of Radio Frequency and Microwaves
  • 8
    Applied Radiation Biology
    • 8.1
      Molecular Techniques
      • 8.1.1
        Action Spectroscopy
      • 8.1.2
        Molecular Weight Determination by “Radiation Inactivation”
    • 8.2
      Radiation Disinfection and Sterilization
    • 8.3
      Therapeutic Applications
      • 8.3.1
        Nonmalignant Diseases
      • 8.3.2
        Cancer Therapy
    • 8.4
      Biodosimetry
      • 8.4.1
        Fluorescence In situ Hybridization (FISH) for Chromosomal Translocations
      • 8.4.2
        ESR Dosimetry
  • 9
    Radioecology, Radiation Protection, and Guidelines
    • 9.1
      Radioecology
      • 9.1.1
        Nonionizing Radiations
      • 9.1.2
        Ionizing Radiation
    • 9.2
      Principles of Radiation Protection Regulations
      • 9.2.1
        Ionizing Radiations
      • 9.2.2
        Nonionizing Radiations

Keywords:

  • optical radiation;
  • ionizing radiation;
  • electromagnetic radiation;
  • particle radiation;
  • linear energy transfer