Standard Article

Cryogenics

  1. Hans M. Bozler,
  2. Christopher M. Gould

Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap085.pub2

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Bozler, H. M. and Gould, C. M. 2007. Cryogenics. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. .

Author Information

  1. University of Southern California, Department of Physics, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

  • 1
    Introduction
  • 2
    What Happens at Low Temperatures?
  • 3
    Production of Low Temperatures
    • 3.1
      Thermal Insulation
    • 3.2
      Cryogenic Refrigeration Using Fluids
      • 3.2.1
        Stirling Cryocooler
      • 3.2.2
        Joule–Brayton Recuperative Refrigerator
      • 3.2.3
        Joule–Thomson Refrigerator
      • 3.2.4
        Evaporative Coolers—1 K, 0.3 K
      • 3.2.5
        Dilution Refrigeration
    • 3.3
      Magnetic Refrigerators
      • 3.3.1
        Introduction to Spin Entropy and Adiabatic Demagnetization
      • 3.3.2
        Demagnetization of Paramagnetic Materials
      • 3.3.3
        Nuclear Demagnetization
  • 4
    Measurement of Low Temperatures
    • 4.1
      Temperature Scales
      • 4.1.1
        The Absolute Temperature Scale
      • 4.1.2
        Other Temperature Scales
      • 4.1.3
        International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)
    • 4.2
      Classes of Thermometers
    • 4.3
      Practical Thermometers
      • 4.3.1
        Constant-Volume Gas Thermometer
      • 4.3.2
        Thermocouples
      • 4.3.3
        Cryogenic-Liquid Vapor Pressure
      • 4.3.4
        Resistance Thermometers
      • 4.3.5
        Diode-Voltage Thermometers
      • 4.3.6
        Capacitance Thermometers
      • 4.3.7
        Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Frequency Shifts
      • 4.3.8
        Electron Paramagnetic Susceptibility
      • 4.3.9
        Nuclear Susceptibility
      • 4.3.10
        3He Melting Pressure
      • 4.3.11
        Noise Thermometry
      • 4.3.12
        Nuclear Orientation
      • 4.3.13
        Quasiparticle Damping Thermometry
      • 4.3.14
        Nuclear Quadrupole Thermometry (NQT)
      • 4.3.15
        Second-Law Thermometry
  • 5
    How Low Can We Go?
    • 5.1
      Negative Temperatures
    • 5.2
      Present Ultralow-Temperature Limits
  • 6
    Acknowledgments