Standard Article

Crystal Growth

  1. Erich Schönherr

Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap086.pub2

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Schönherr, E. 2007. Crystal Growth. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. .

Author Information

  1. Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

  • 1
    Introduction
  • 2
    Physical and Technical Principles
    • 2.1
      Driving Force, Undercooling, and Supersaturation
    • 2.2
      Formation of an Initial Crystal
    • 2.3
      Crystal Growth
      • 2.3.1
        Mass Transfer of Crystal Species and their Incorporation
      • 2.3.2
        Mass Transport through Chemical Reactions
      • 2.3.3
        Heat Transfer into the Crystal
      • 2.3.4
        Growth Rates from Theoretical Models
    • 2.4
      Principles of Crystal-Growth Procedures
      • 2.4.1
        Crystal Growth in Monocomponent Systems
      • 2.4.2
        Crystal Growth in Multicomponent Systems
    • 2.5
      Selection of Crystal-Growth Method
  • 3
    Basic Components of Crystal-growth Equipment
    • 3.1
      Containers
    • 3.2
      Heating Apparatus
      • 3.2.1
        Resistance Heater
      • 3.2.2
        Induction Heater
      • 3.2.3
        Other Heat Sources
    • 3.3
      Temperature Control
    • 3.4
      Growth-Rate Control
    • 3.5
      Environment
  • 4
    Techniques of Crystal Growth
    • 4.1
      Techniques of Crystal Growth from the Vapor Phase
      • 4.1.1
        Pizzarello Method
      • 4.1.2
        Temperature Gradient Technique
      • 4.1.3
        Temperature Difference Technique
    • 4.2
      Techniques for Crystal Growth from the Liquid Phase
      • 4.2.1
        Czochralski Technique
      • 4.2.2
        Bridgman Technique
      • 4.2.3
        Temperature Gradient Technique
      • 4.2.4
        Liquid-Zone Techniques
    • 4.3
      Techniques of Crystal Growth from a Solution
      • 4.3.1
        Solvent Evaporation
      • 4.3.2
        Temperature Difference Techniques
      • 4.3.3
        Techniques with Gel Media
      • 4.3.4
        Slow-Cooling Techniques
    • 4.4
      Techniques of Crystal Growth from the Solid Phase (Recrystallization)
  • 5
    Techniques of Thin-film Growth
    • 5.1
      Liquid-Phase Epitaxy
    • 5.2
      Chemical Vapor Epitaxy
    • 5.3
      Molecular-Beam Epitaxy
  • 6
    Characterization of Crystals
    • 6.1
      Morphology
    • 6.2
      Segregation of Impurities
      • 6.2.1
        Segregation Coefficients
      • 6.2.2
        Impurity Distribution through Zone Refining
      • 6.2.3
        Precipitation
    • 6.3
      Structural Defects
      • 6.3.1
        Point Defects
      • 6.3.2
        Line Defects
      • 6.3.3
        Two-Dimensional Defects
  • 7
    Examples of Applications
    • 7.1
      Czochralski Techniques
      • 7.1.1
        Edge-Defined Film-Fed Growth
      • 7.1.2
        Dendritic Silicon Web Growth
    • 7.2
      Float Zoning of Silicon
    • 7.3
      High-Pressure Technique of Diamond Growth