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Gravitation and General Relativity

  1. Bernard F. Schutz1,
  2. Clifford M. Will2

Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap163.pub2

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Schutz, B. F. and Will, C. M. 2007. Gravitation and General Relativity. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Wales College of Cardiff, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom

  2. 2

    Washington University, Department of Physics, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2007

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

  • 1
    Introduction
  • 2
    General Relativity and Relativistic Gravity
    • 2.1
      Gravitation Theory: An Overview
      • 2.1.1
        Relativistic Gravity in Physics
      • 2.1.2
        Where Relativistic Gravity Is Important
    • 2.2
      Fundamental Ideas and New Concepts of General Relativity
      • 2.2.1
        The Incorporation of Newtonian Gravity
      • 2.2.2
        Basic Ingredients of General Relativity
      • 2.2.3
        General Relativity: Gravity as Geometry
      • 2.2.4
        Sources of Gravity: How Matter Creates the Geometry
      • 2.2.5
        Other Theories of Gravity
      • 2.2.6
        A Cosmological Term in Einstein's Equations
  • 3
    Some Consequences of Einstein's Field Equations
    • 3.1
      Momentum and Stress Also Make Gravity
      • 3.1.1
        Gravitomagnetism
      • 3.1.2
        Gravitational Collapse
    • 3.2
      Black-Hole Theory
      • 3.2.1
        Black Holes in the Eighteenth Century
      • 3.2.2
        Black Holes in General Relativity
      • 3.2.3
        Singularities Inside the Hole
      • 3.2.4
        Black Holes Have No Hair
      • 3.2.5
        Black-Hole Thermodynamics
      • 3.2.6
        Wormholes
    • 3.3
      Gravitational Waves
      • 3.3.1
        The Necessity of Gravitational Waves
      • 3.3.2
        The Interaction of Gravitational Waves with Matter
      • 3.3.3
        Wave Emission: The Quadrupole Formula
    • 3.4
      Applications of General Relativity
      • 3.4.1
        Relativistic Stars (Pulsars) and Gravitational Collapse
      • 3.4.2
        Black Holes in X-Ray Binaries and in Galactic Centers
      • 3.4.3
        Gravitational Lensing
      • 3.4.4
        Solar System and Stellar Orbits
      • 3.4.5
        Cosmology, Inflation, and the Origins of the Universe
  • 4
    Tests of Gravitational Theories and Their Technological Demands
    • 4.1
      Tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle
      • 4.1.1
        Tests of Special Relativity
      • 4.1.2
        The Eötvös Experiment, the Weak Equivalence Principle, and the Fifth Force
      • 4.1.3
        Gravitational Redshift
    • 4.2
      Solar-System Tests of General Relativity
      • 4.2.1
        The Deflection and Retardation of Light
      • 4.2.2
        Mercury's Perihelion Advance
      • 4.2.3
        Test of the Strong Equivalence Principle
    • 4.3
      The Binary Pulsar: An Astronomical Relativity Laboratory
    • 4.4
      Future Work in Experimental Gravitation
      • 4.4.1
        Search for Gravitomagnetic Effects
      • 4.4.2
        Tests of the Einstein Equivalence Principle
      • 4.4.3
        Further Fifth-Force Searches
  • 5
    Gravitational-wave Detection: A Technological Frontier
    • 5.1
      Likely Sources of Detectable Waves
      • 5.1.1
        Supernovae
      • 5.1.2
        Coalescing Binaries
      • 5.1.3
        Pulsars
      • 5.1.4
        Ordinary Binaries
      • 5.1.5
        Cosmological Background
      • 5.1.6
        Unexpected Sources
    • 5.2
      Detectors
      • 5.2.1
        Bar-Type Detectors
      • 5.2.2
        Laser-Interferometric Detectors
      • 5.2.3
        Space-Based Detectors