Standard Article


  1. Emmett N. Leith

Published Online: 15 JUL 2005

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap175.pub2

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Leith, E. N. 2005. Holography. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. .

Author Information

  1. The University of Michigan, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2005


Holography, a method of photography that produces highly realistic images, fully three-dimensional, with the normal parallax relations of the actual object, is described. Basics of the theory are presented from both a mathematical and a physical viewpoint. Various areas of application are given, including three-dimensional displays, complex spatial filtering, hologram interferometry for nondestructive testing and metrology, product authentication and counterfeiting security, holographic optical elements, and imaging through inhomogeneities using holographic phase conjugation. The various forms of white light viewable holograms are described, including the Denisyuk or volume type, the Benton or rainbow type, and the integral type. The diffractive properties of holograms are analyzed, including Bragg diffraction, i.e., diffraction from a volume hologram. The construction of commercial display holograms is discussed. The present state of commercial and artistic holography is discussed, along with expected future developments.


  • imaging;
  • phase;
  • interference;
  • wavefront reconstruction;
  • metrology;
  • nondestructive testing;
  • optical storage;
  • displays;
  • phase conjugation