Standard Article

Laser Sources

  1. David L. Andrews1,
  2. Robert H. Lipson2

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap191.pub3

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Andrews, D. L. and Lipson, R. H. 2009. Laser Sources. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. 655–693.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of East Anglia, School of Chemistry, Norwich, UK

  2. 2

    University of Western Ontario, Department of Chemistry, London, N6A 5B7, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

Abstract

The article contains sections titled:

  • 1
    Introduction
  • 2
    Optically Pumped Solid-State Lasers
    • 2.1
      Ruby Laser
    • 2.2
      Neodymium Lasers
    • 2.3
      Widely Tunable Lasers
    • 2.4
      Color-Center Lasers
    • 2.5
      Fiber Lasers
  • 3
    Diode Lasers
    • 3.1
      Vertical Cavity Surface Emitter Lasers
    • 3.2
      Visible Laser Diodes
    • 3.3
      Quantum Dot Lasers
    • 3.4
      Quantum Cascade Lasers
    • 3.5
      Quantum Microcavity Lasers
  • 4
    Atomic and Ionic Gas Lasers
    • 4.1
      Helium–Neon Laser
    • 4.2
      Argon and Krypton Lasers
  • 5
    Molecular Gas Lasers
    • 5.1
      Carbon Dioxide Laser
    • 5.2
      Nitrogen Laser
    • 5.3
      Iodine Laser
    • 5.4
      Excimer Lasers
    • 5.5
      Dye Lasers
  • 6
    Pulsing Techniques
    • 6.1
      Cavity Dumping
    • 6.2
      Q-Switching
    • 6.3
      Mode-Locking
    • 6.4
      Ultrafast Pulse Compression
    • 6.5
      Continuum Generation
  • 7
    Short Wavelength Coherent Radiation
    • 7.1
      Frequency Conversion
    • 7.2
      Frequency Doubling
    • 7.3
      Optical Parametric Oscillators
    • 7.4
      Frequency Tripling and Four-Wave Mixing
    • 7.5
      Higher Order Harmonic Generation
    • 7.6
      Free-Electron Laser
    • 7.7
      Tabletop X-ray Lasers

Keywords:

  • laser operation;
  • laser systems;
  • pulse generation;
  • nonlinear optical techniques;
  • upconversion