Standard Article


  1. Michael Claus,
  2. Klaus Knupfer

Published Online: 15 JUL 2004

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap583.pub2

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Claus, M. and Knupfer, K. 2004. Stereoscopy. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. .

Author Information

  1. Carl Zeiss, Research and Technology Division, Oberkochen, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 JUL 2004


This article covers the principles of stereoscopic imaging and measurements. It explains stereoscopic image-generation techniques and the available methods of stereoimage display. 3D measurements in stereoimages and the related mathematics are explained, together with required hardware equipment and software. The generation of products such as digital elevation models, orthophotos and semiautomatic produced maps, resulting from the 3D measurements, is explained.


  • stereoscopic principles;
  • stereoscopic image-generation techniques;
  • stereoimage display;
  • measurement in stereoimages;
  • stereoplotters;
  • orthophotos;
  • least-squares matching;
  • feature-based matching;
  • digital elevation models