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Surface Second Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Generation

  1. Mitsumasa Iwamoto,
  2. Takaaki Manaka,
  3. Eunju Lim

Published Online: 15 DEC 2009

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap689

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Iwamoto, M., Manaka, T. and Lim, E. 2009. Surface Second Harmonic and Sum-Frequency Generation. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. 819–832.

Author Information

  1. Tokyo Institute of Technology, Department of Physical Electronics, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, Japan

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 DEC 2009


The use of optical second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement of the exploration of dielectric polarization and related surface phenomena is described. Paying attention to the specific nature of material systems on the surface, orientational order parameters are introduced to characterize surface layers, and the SHG enhancement is described in terms of the order parameters. Also the sum-frequency generation (SFG) and electric-field-induced SHG(EFISHG) are described as a tool of probing carrier motions in surface layers. The experimental system is shown with some results.


  • dielectric polarization;
  • liquid crystal;
  • second-order susceptibility;
  • centrosymmetric system;
  • photomultiplier tube;
  • order parameter;
  • surface charge;
  • non-centrosymmetric system