Standard Article

Chemical Analysis Metrology

  1. Kenneth A. Rubinson1,2

Published Online: 15 MAR 2011

DOI: 10.1002/3527600434.eap707

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

Encyclopedia of Applied Physics

How to Cite

Rubinson, K. A. 2011. Chemical Analysis Metrology. Encyclopedia of Applied Physics. 415–462.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The Five Oaks Research Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA

  2. 2

    Wright State University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dayton, OH, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 MAR 2011


Measurement in chemical analysis requires at its base validation of analytical methods. Validation shows that the measurement of content is correct for a specific type of material within some limit of uncertainty, where the uncertainty is due to random variation after any bias of the measurement is removed. Analyses involve sampling, sample preparation, use of standards, and an assay method that is applied to measure the content. Statistical evaluation of the results in each step can combined to evaluate the overall validty of the measurement.


  • sampling;
  • sample preparation;
  • assay;
  • validation;
  • uncertainty;
  • bias;
  • sensitivity;
  • detection limit