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Body Expression Map of Human Genome

  1. Shinichi Morishita1,
  2. Asao Fujiyama2

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/3527600906.mcb.200300033

Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

How to Cite

Morishita, S. and Fujiyama, A. 2006. Body Expression Map of Human Genome. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Department of Computational Biology

  2. 2

    Biosciences Information Research, National Institute of Informatics, Research Information Research Division

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

Abstract

One of the major objectives of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to list the entire set of genes and their functions together with control mechanisms written in the human genome. Thus, genome-wide mRNA/cDNA analyses were conducted at about the same time as the major research topic of the Human Genome Project. The first approach was to compile a complete catalog of genes written in the genome of particular organisms, such as human or mouse, through a random collection of expressed cDNA sequences (expressed-sequence tags, ESTs). The second approach has more focus on the status of expressed genes through the acquisition of expression profiles of mRNA/cDNA (body mapping) isolated from a particular cell group, tissue, or organ. Much of the EST approach, such as the gene cataloguing project, is qualitative. In contrast, body-mapping projects are designed to clarify the differences of cells or tissues in terms of gene expression profiles; thus, they have to be quantitative at every step during the experiment. Integration of millions of EST alignments on the human genome needs browsers that facilitate efficient searching and browsing of an enormous quantity of EST alignments. To achieve this goal, it is essential to meet specific computational requirements, such as the acceleration of sensitive-but-slow (dynamic programming) alignment algorithms, and the resolution of EST orientations. Genome browsers such as Ensembl, UCSC, NCBI, and GRL support these functions.

Keywords:

  • Gene;
  • Genome;
  • Gene Expression;
  • Alignment Algorithm;
  • SNP Classification;
  • EST Orientation;
  • Oligomer Design