Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Copyright © 2006 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine
How to Cite
Takeuchi, C. and Wentworth, P. 2006. Immunology. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine.
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Prior to the late-1960s, most studies on vertebrate immune systems focused on the recognition and killing mechanisms of adaptive immunity. The evolutionarily ancient mechanisms of innate immunity, generally thought to be nonspecific and obsolete, were, for the most part, overlooked. However, the relevance of innate systems has become apparent in recent decades, especially with the discovery of Toll-like receptors and with the ability of pattern-recognition receptors to stimulate effective immune responses via the induction of genes and cytokine expression. This review focuses on the complex interplay at the molecular level, between innate immune activation and adaptive immune responses and on how this relationship is essential for host defense.