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Biomolecular Interactions

  1. Cindy Takeuchi1,
  2. Paul Wentworth1,2

Published Online: 15 SEP 2006

DOI: 10.1002/3527600906.mcb.200400060

Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

How to Cite

Takeuchi, C. and Wentworth, P. 2006. Immunology. Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA

  2. 2

    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 15 SEP 2006


Prior to the late-1960s, most studies on vertebrate immune systems focused on the recognition and killing mechanisms of adaptive immunity. The evolutionarily ancient mechanisms of innate immunity, generally thought to be nonspecific and obsolete, were, for the most part, overlooked. However, the relevance of innate systems has become apparent in recent decades, especially with the discovery of Toll-like receptors and with the ability of pattern-recognition receptors to stimulate effective immune responses via the induction of genes and cytokine expression. This review focuses on the complex interplay at the molecular level, between innate immune activation and adaptive immune responses and on how this relationship is essential for host defense.


  • Cytokines;
  • Chemokines;
  • Inflammation;
  • Leukocytes;
  • Phagocytosis