Optimization of Proteins for Molecular and Biomolecular Electronic Devices
Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Copyright © 2006 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine
How to Cite
Wise, K. J., Hillebrecht, J. R., Koscielecki, J. F., Stuart, J. A. and Birge, R. R. 2006. Optimization of Proteins for Molecular and Biomolecular Electronic Devices. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine.
- Published Online: 15 SEP 2006
Protein-based bioelectronic devices have emerged as practical alternatives to semiconductor-based technology. While nature does not optimize biological molecules for performance in device applications, present-day genetic engineering has enabled investigators to manipulate the speed, durability, and architecture of candidate molecules. The biophysical, chemical, electronic, and thermal parameters of certain genetically amenable molecules have been optimized via a technique known as directed evolution. Combining genetic modification with differential selection makes it possible to tailor biological macromolecules with a high degree of accuracy and speed. Genetically modified forms of bacteriorhodopsin have improved the performance of the protein in three-dimensional volumetric memories, real-time holographic media, protein-based semiconductor devices, and artificial retinas.
Keywords: Bacteriorhodopsin; Biomolecular Devices; Biophotonics; Directed Evolution; Mutagenesis; Protein Optimization; Thermostability