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Regulation of Gene Expression

RNA Regulation

  1. Anil Kumar1,
  2. Sarika Garg1,2,3,
  3. Neha Garg1,4

Published Online: 30 APR 2014

DOI: 10.1002/3527600906.mcb.200400080.pub3

Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

How to Cite

Kumar, A., Garg, S. and Garg, N. 2014. Regulation of Gene Expression . Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine. 1–59.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Devi Ahilya University, School of Biotechnology, Indore, India

  2. 2

    Max Planck Unit for Structural Molecular Biology, C/O DESY, Gebäude 25b, Hamburg, Germany

  3. 3

    University of Saskatchewan, Department of Psychiatry, Saskatoon, SK, Canada

  4. 4

    Barkatullah University, Biotechnology Department, Bhopal, India

  • *

    This is an updated version of a chapter previously published in: Meyers, R.A. (Ed.) Epigenetic Regulation and Epigenomics, 2013, ISBN 978-3-527-32682-2.

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 30 APR 2014

Abstract

Gene expression can be regulated at the stage of transcription, RNA processing (post-transcriptional changes), and translation. In prokaryotes, the on–off of transcription serves as the main regulatory control of the gene expression whereas, in eukaryotes, more complex regulatory mechanism of transcription takes place. In addition, RNA splicing also plays a major role in the regulation of gene expression. The primary transcript of DNA has complementary sequences of both exons and introns, and is termed heterogeneous RNA (HnRNA). The HnRNA is spliced by the removal of introns and the ligation of exons. The regulation of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes is important, as it determines whether a particular protein should be synthesized, and in what quantity. The cells of a multicellular organism are genetically homogeneous, but structurally and functionally heterogeneous, owing to the differential expression of genes. Many of these differences in gene expression arise during development, and are subsequently retained through mitosis. Stable alterations of this type are termed epigenetic. These alterations are heritable in the short term, but do not involve mutations of the DNA itself. The main molecular mechanisms that mediate epigenetic phenomena are DNA methylation and histone modification(s).

Keywords:

  • Alternate splicing;
  • Alzheimer's disease;
  • Attenuation;
  • Bromodomain;
  • CAAT box;
  • Chromodomain;
  • Coffin–Lowry syndrome;
  • Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP or CAP);
  • Epigenetics;
  • Epigenotype;
  • Epigenetic regulation;
  • Exon;
  • Gratuitous inducer;
  • Intron or intervening sequence;
  • Inducer;
  • Induction;
  • Lariat;
  • Leader sequence;
  • Myoblast;
  • Operator;
  • Polyadenylation;
  • Polycistronic mRNA;
  • Promoter;
  • Regulatory gene;
  • Repression;
  • Rett syndrome;
  • Riboswitch;
  • Ribozyme;
  • RITS (RNA-induced transcriptional silencing);
  • SnRNAs (small nuclear RNAs);
  • SnRNPs;
  • Splicing;
  • TATA box;
  • Telomerase;
  • Telomere;
  • Totipotent;
  • Tropomyosin;
  • Upstream