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Nuclear Transfer for Cloning Animals

Epigenetic Regulation and Epigenomics

  1. Andras Dinnyes1,
  2. Xiuchun Cindy Tian2,
  3. Björn Oback3

Published Online: 10 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/3527600906.mcb.200400139.pub2

Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine

How to Cite

Dinnyes, A., Cindy Tian, X. and Oback, B. 2011. Nuclear Transfer for Cloning Animals. Reviews in Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine. .

Author Information

  1. 1

    Szent Istvan University, Molecular Animal Biotechnology Laboratory, Hungary and BioTalentum Ltd, Godollo, Hungary

  2. 2

    University of Connecticut, Department of Animal Science, Center for Regenerative Biology, Storrs, CT, USA

  3. 3

    AgResearch, Ruakura Research Centre, Hamilton, New Zealand

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 10 OCT 2011

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (27 JAN 2016)


Nuclear transfer (NT), also termed nuclear replacement or nuclear transplantation, is the method of choice for animal cloning. NT is a complex technique, which involves the removal/destruction of the nuclear DNA from an oocyte or zygote (enucleation), and replacing it with nuclear material from an embryonic, germ, or somatic cell. The newly introduced DNA interacts with the recipient cytoplasmic environment and, following complex, little known changes in the nuclear DNA, can direct development into adult fertile animals. Compared to other assisted reproductive technologies, the NT process is relatively inefficient. Nonetheless, NT is an important procedure as it allows the study of fundamental questions on epigenetic “reprogramming.” As a practical tool, NT can be used for agricultural and medical applications, especially when combined with transgenic and pluripotent stem cell technologies.


  • Animal cloning;
  • Cloning efficiency;
  • Cytoplast;
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells;
  • Epigenetic;
  • Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells;
  • Mitochondrial heteroplasmy;
  • Nuclear reprogramming;
  • Nuclear transfer (NT);
  • Serial NT;
  • Somatic stem cells;
  • Tetraploid embryo complementation;
  • Telomere;
  • Therapeutic cloning;
  • Reproductive cloning;
  • Xenotransplantation