TEM Investigations of Ti Deformed by ECAP

  1. Prof. Dr. Michael Zehetbauer2 and
  2. Prof. Ruslan Z. Valiev3
  1. B. Mingler,
  2. L. Zeipper,
  3. H. P. Karnthaler and
  4. M. Zehetbauer

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/3527602461.ch6h

Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation

Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation

How to Cite

Mingler, B., Zeipper, L., Karnthaler, H. P. and Zehetbauer, M. (2004) TEM Investigations of Ti Deformed by ECAP, in Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation (eds M. Zehetbauer and R. Z. Valiev), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. doi: 10.1002/3527602461.ch6h

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Institut für Materialphysik, Universität Wien, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Wien, Austria

  2. 3

    Institute of Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, 12 K. Marks Str., Ufa, 450 000, Russia

Author Information

  1. Institute of Materials Physics, University of Vienna, Wien, Austria

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 25 FEB 2004

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527306596

Online ISBN: 9783527602469



  • transmission electron microscopy (TEM);
  • TEM investigations;
  • commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti);
  • equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP);
  • high pressure torsion (HPT)


Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) is chemically inert and biologically more compatible than Ti alloys [1]. Therefore it is preferentially used for medical implants and devices. As compared to Ti alloys coarse grained CP-Ti lacks the necessary strength. In the present study equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) deformation is used to achieve smaller grain sizes and producing work pieces with dimensions large enough for technical applications. The results can be compared with those from high pressure torsional (HPT) deformed samples that received after the deformation similar heat treatments [2]; but it should be pointed out that the HPT deformed samples are in most cases much too small for manufacturing technical applications. The use of a heating holder during the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations allows in-situ observations of the changes in the microstructure during annealing with increasing temperatures. It is the aim of this work to correlate the microstructures deduced from the TEM results of the different samples with their hardness values.