Chapter 1. Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams of Materials

  1. Prof. Gernot Kostorz
  1. Prof. Arthur D. Pelton

Published Online: 28 JAN 2005

DOI: 10.1002/352760264X.ch1

Phase Transformations in Materials

Phase Transformations in Materials

How to Cite

Pelton, A. D. (2005) Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams of Materials , in Phase Transformations in Materials (ed G. Kostorz), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. doi: 10.1002/352760264X.ch1

Editor Information

  1. ETH Zürich, Institut fü Angewandte Physik, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland

Author Information

  1. École Polytechnique de Montréal, Centre de Recherche en Calcul Thermochimique, CP 6079, Succursale A, Montréal, Québec H3C 3A7, Canada

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 28 JAN 2005
  2. Published Print: 10 AUG 2001

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527302567

Online ISBN: 9783527602643

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Keywords:

  • thermodynamics;
  • phase diagrams;
  • Gibbs energy;
  • chemical equilibrium;
  • predominance diagrams;
  • Ellingham diagrams;
  • thermodynamics of solutions;
  • Gibbs energy of mixing;
  • chemical potential;
  • Gibbs-Duhem equation;
  • activity;
  • excess properties;
  • activity coefficient;
  • binary phase diagrams;
  • miscibility gaps;
  • eutectic systems;
  • immiscibility;
  • monotectics;
  • ternary composition triangle;
  • multicomponent phase diagrams;
  • sublattice models;
  • Raoult's law;
  • Henry's law

Summary

  • List of Symbols and Abbreviations

  • Introduction

    • Notation

  • Gibbs Energy and Equilibrium

    • Gibbs Energy

    • Chemical Equilibrium

  • Predominance Diagrams

    • Calculation of Predominance Diagrams

    • Ellingham Diagrams as Predominance Diagrams

    • Discussion of Predominance Diagrams

  • Thermodynamics of Solutions

    • Gibbs Energy of Mixing

    • Chemical Potential

    • Tangent Construction

    • Gibbs-Duhem Equation

    • Relative Partial Properties

    • Activity

    • Ideal Raoultian Solutions

    • Excess Properties

    • Activity Coefficient

    • Multicomponent Solutions

  • Binary Phase Diagrams

    • Systems with Complete Solid and Liquid Miscibility

    • Thermodynamic Origin of Phase Diagrams

    • Pressure-Composition Phase Diagrams

    • Minima and Maxima in Two-Phase Regions

    • Miscibility Gaps

    • Simple Eutectic Systems

    • Regular Solution Theory

    • Thermodynamic Origin of Simple Phase Diagrams Illustrated by Regular Solution Theory

    • Immiscibility – Monotectics

    • Intermediate Phases

    • Limited Mutual Solubility – Ideal Henrian Solutions

    • Geometry of Binary Phase Diagrams

  • Application of Thermodynamics to Phase Diagram Analysis

    • Thermodynamic/Phase Diagram Optimization

    • Polynomial Representation of Excess Properties

    • Least-Squares Optimization

    • Calculation of Metastable Phase Boundaries

  • Ternary and Multicomponent Phase Diagrams

    • The Ternary Composition Triangle

    • Ternary Space Model

    • Polythermal Projections of Liquidus Surfaces

    • Ternary Isothermal Sections

      • Topology of Ternary Isothermal Sections

    • Ternary Isopleths (Constant Composition Sections)

      • Quasi-Binary Phase Diagrams

    • Multicomponent Phase Diagrams

    • Nomenclature for Invariant Reactions

    • Reciprocal Ternary Phase Diagrams

  • Phase Diagrams with Potentials as Axes

  • General Phase Diagram Geometry

    • General Geometrical Rules for All True Phase Diagram Sections

      • Zero Phase Fraction Lines

    • Choice of Axes and Constants of True Phase Diagrams

      • Tie-lines

      • Corresponding Phase Diagrams

      • Theoretical Considerations

      • Other Sets of Conjugate Pairs

  • Solution Models

    • Sublattice Models

      • All Sublattices Except One Occupied by Only One Species

      • Ionic Solutions

      • Interstitial Solutions

      • Ceramic Solutions

      • The Compound Energy Formalism

      • Non-Stoichiometric Compounds

    • Polymer Solutions

    • Calculation of Limiting Slopes of Phase Boundaries

    • Short-Range Ordering

    • Long-Range Ordering

  • Calculation of Ternary Phase Diagrams From Binary Data

  • Minimization of Gibbs Energy

    • Phase Diagram Calculation

  • Bibliography

    • Phase Diagram Compilations

    • Thermodynamic Compilations

    • General Reading

  • References