Leaded and Lead-Free Solders: Bulk Mechanical Properties and the Performance and Reliability of Model Joint Assemblies

  1. Dr. K. Grassie2,
  2. Prof. Dr. E. Teuckhoff3,
  3. Prof. Dr. G. Wegner4,
  4. Prof. Dr. J. Hausselt5 and
  5. Prof. Dr. H. Hanselka6
  1. B. J. Foroodian,
  2. P. M. Mummery and
  3. B. Roebuck

Published Online: 27 APR 2006

DOI: 10.1002/3527607420.ch10

Functional Materials, Volume 13

Functional Materials, Volume 13

How to Cite

Foroodian, B. J., Mummery, P. M. and Roebuck, B. (2000) Leaded and Lead-Free Solders: Bulk Mechanical Properties and the Performance and Reliability of Model Joint Assemblies, in Functional Materials, Volume 13 (eds K. Grassie, E. Teuckhoff, G. Wegner, J. Hausselt and H. Hanselka), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. doi: 10.1002/3527607420.ch10

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Philips Forschungslaboratorium, Postfach 500145, 52085 Aachen, Germany

  2. 3

    Siemens AG, Postfach 3240, 91050 Erlangen, Germany

  3. 4

    Max-Planck-Institut für Polymerforschung, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz, Germany

  4. 5

    Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76201 Karlsruhe, Germany

  5. 6

    Institut für Mechanik, Otto-von-Guericke-Universität Magdeburg, Universitätsplatz 2, 39160 Magdeburg, Germany

Author Information

  1. National Physical Laboratory, UK

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 27 APR 2006
  2. Published Print: 27 JUN 2000

Book Series:

  1. EUROMAT 99

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527302543

Online ISBN: 9783527607426



  • functional materials;
  • leaded and lead-free solders;
  • bulk mechanical properties;
  • performance and reliability of model joint assemblies


A comparison of the bulk mechanical properties of a lead-tin eutectic and a lead-free (tin-silver-copper) solder was made on a novel miniaturized test system, the ETMT. Room and elevated temperature tensile tests were performed to determine the effects of material microstructure and strain rate on the flow properties. The lead-free solder had far superior mechanical properties in all material conditions and temperatures, a trend repeated in the creep and thermo-mechanical fatigue performance. Model symmetrical lap joints were assembled. Thermal and mechanical cycling, and creep tests to failure were performed. These accelerated reliability tests allowed a direct measure of the thermal cycling behaviour of the solders within an afternoon. The lead-free solder joints had two orders of magnitude greater lifetimes (cycles to failure) than the lead-tin eutectic joints. The ETMT shows great promise for generating reliable data in a short time-scale.