Chapter 3. Phox2a and Phox2b: Essential Transcription Factors for Neuron Specification and Differentiation

  1. Prof. Dr. Gerald Thiel
  1. Uwe Ernsberger1 and
  2. Hermann Rohrer2

Published Online: 22 MAY 2006

DOI: 10.1002/3527608036.ch3

Transcription Factors in the Nervous System: Development, Brain Function, and Diseases

Transcription Factors in the Nervous System: Development, Brain Function, and Diseases

How to Cite

Ernsberger, U. and Rohrer, H. (2005) Phox2a and Phox2b: Essential Transcription Factors for Neuron Specification and Differentiation, in Transcription Factors in the Nervous System: Development, Brain Function, and Diseases (ed G. Thiel), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. doi: 10.1002/3527608036.ch3

Editor Information

  1. Department of Medical Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Saarland Medical Center, Building 44, 66421 Homburg, Germany

Author Information

  1. 1

    ICN, Department of Neuroanatomy, University of Heidelberg, INF 307, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany

  2. 2

    Max-Planck-Institut for Brain Research, Research Group Developmental Neurobiology, Deutschordenstr. 46, 60528 Frankfurt/Mainz, Germany

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 22 MAY 2006
  2. Published Print: 16 DEC 2005

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527312856

Online ISBN: 9783527608034

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Keywords:

  • transcription factors;
  • neural development;
  • Phox2a;
  • Phox2b;
  • essential transcription factors;
  • neuron specification and differentiation;
  • molecular characteristics of Phox2 genes;
  • molecular characteristics of Phox2 proteins;
  • physiological relevance;
  • molecular mechanism of action

Summary

This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Abstract

  • Introduction

  • Molecular Characteristics of Phox2 Genes and Proteins

    • Sequence and Gene Structure Conservation in the Animal Kingdom

    • Transcriptional Activation by Phox2 Proteins

  • Physiological Relevance of Phox2 Transcription Factors

    • Expression Pattern

    • Effects of Phox2 Gene Mutations

      • Autonomic Neural Crest Derivatives and Visceral Sensory Ganglia

      • Central Noradrenergic Neurons

      • Autonomic Centers in the Hindbrain

    • Human Mutations

  • Molecular Mechanism of Action in Different Lineages

    • Sympathetic Neurons

    • Parasympathetic Neurons

    • Enteric Neurons

    • Visceral Sensory Neurons of the Geniculate, Petrosal and Nodose Ganglia

    • Central Noradrenergic Neurons

    • Autonomic Centers in the Hindbrain

      • Afferent Visceral Centers

      • Efferent Visceral Centers

    • Oculomotor (nIII) and Trochlear (nIV) Centers

  • Conclusions and Outlook

    • Distinct or Identical Functions for Phox2a and Phox2b?

    • Master Control Genes for Noradrenergic Differentiation

    • Master Control Genes for Autonomic Reflex Circuit Generation

  • Acknowledgments

  • Abbreviations