Chapter 2. Evolutionary Aspects of Stress

  1. Prof. Dr. Bengt B. Arnetz2,3 and
  2. Prof. Rolf Ekman4
  1. Björn Folkow

Published Online: 21 AUG 2006

DOI: 10.1002/3527609156.ch2

Stress in Health and Disease

Stress in Health and Disease

How to Cite

Folkow, B. (2006) Evolutionary Aspects of Stress, in Stress in Health and Disease (eds B. B. Arnetz and R. Ekman), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. doi: 10.1002/3527609156.ch2

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Wayne State University, 101 E. Alexandrine, Detroit, Michigan 48201-2011, USA

  2. 3

    Division of Social Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala Science Park, Social Medicine, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden

  3. 4

    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Neurochemical laboratory, Mölndal/SU, 43180 Mölndal, Sweden

Author Information

  1. Sahlgrenska Akademien, Dept. of Physiology, University of Göteborg, Box 432, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 AUG 2006
  2. Published Print: 20 JUL 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527312214

Online ISBN: 9783527609154



  • stress in health and disease;
  • multifaceted view of stress;
  • evolutionary aspects of stress;
  • man's situation in a phylogenetic perspective;
  • intuitive insight to experimental documentation;
  • organization of stress-induced response patterns;
  • implications


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • Man's Situation in a Phylogenetic Perspective

  • From Intuitive Insight to Experimental Documentation

  • Organization of Stress-Induced Response Patterns

    • General Aspects

    • The Four Triads of Response

      • The Vigilance (Freezing) Reaction (VR)

      • The Playing Dead (Inhibitory) Reaction (PR)

      • The Defense (Alarm) Reaction (DeR)

      • The Defeat Reaction (DfR)

    • DeR and DfR Involvements in Animal Models of Human Society

  • Implications Concerning Man in Modern Society

  • Concluding Remarks

  • References