Chapter 21. Emotional Stress, Positive Emotions, and Psychophysiological Coherence

  1. Prof. Dr. Bengt B. Arnetz2,3 and
  2. Prof. Rolf Ekman4
  1. Rollin McCraty and
  2. Dana Tomasino

Published Online: 21 AUG 2006

DOI: 10.1002/3527609156.ch21

Stress in Health and Disease

Stress in Health and Disease

How to Cite

McCraty, R. and Tomasino, D. (2006) Emotional Stress, Positive Emotions, and Psychophysiological Coherence, in Stress in Health and Disease (eds B. B. Arnetz and R. Ekman), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. doi: 10.1002/3527609156.ch21

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Wayne State University, 101 E. Alexandrine, Detroit, Michigan 48201-2011, USA

  2. 3

    Division of Social Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala Science Park, Social Medicine, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden

  3. 4

    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Neurochemical laboratory, Mölndal/SU, 43180 Mölndal, Sweden

Author Information

  1. HeartMath Research Center, Institute of HeartMath, 14700 West Park Avenue, Boulder Creek, CA, USA

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 AUG 2006
  2. Published Print: 20 JUL 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527312214

Online ISBN: 9783527609154



  • stress in health and disease;
  • stress and the individual;
  • emotional stress;
  • positive emotions;
  • psychophysiological coherence;
  • HeartMath techniques


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction

  • The Emotional Basis of Stress

  • Breaking the Stress Cycle: The Power of Positive Emotions

  • Positive Emotion-Focused Tools and Techniques

    • Freeze-Frame: A Positive Emotion Refocusing Technique

      • The Steps of Freeze-Frame

    • Heart Lock-In: An Emotional Restructuring Technique

      • The Steps of Heart Lock-In

  • The Scientific Basis of the HeartMath Techniques

    • The Generation of Emotions: A Pattern-Matching Process

    • More Than a Pump: The Heart′s Key Role

    • The Physiology of Positive Emotions

    • Psychophysiological Coherence

  • Revisiting the HeartMath Techniques: A Repatterning Process

  • Heart Rhythm Coherence Feedback Training: Facilitating Coherence

  • Conclusions and Implications

  • Acknowledgements

  • Note

  • References