Chapter 4. Collective Traumatic Stress: Crisis and Catastrophes

  1. Prof. Dr. Bengt B. Arnetz2,3 and
  2. Prof. Rolf Ekman4
  1. Lars Weisæth

Published Online: 21 AUG 2006

DOI: 10.1002/3527609156.ch4

Stress in Health and Disease

Stress in Health and Disease

How to Cite

Weisæth, L. (2006) Collective Traumatic Stress: Crisis and Catastrophes, in Stress in Health and Disease (eds B. B. Arnetz and R. Ekman), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG. doi: 10.1002/3527609156.ch4

Editor Information

  1. 2

    Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Wayne State University, 101 E. Alexandrine, Detroit, Michigan 48201-2011, USA

  2. 3

    Division of Social Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala Science Park, Social Medicine, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden

  3. 4

    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Neurochemical laboratory, Mölndal/SU, 43180 Mölndal, Sweden

Author Information

  1. The University of Oslo, Boks 1072 Blindern, 0316 Oslo, Norway

Publication History

  1. Published Online: 21 AUG 2006
  2. Published Print: 20 JUL 2006

ISBN Information

Print ISBN: 9783527312214

Online ISBN: 9783527609154



  • stress in health and disease;
  • stress at societal level;
  • stress at organizational level;
  • collective traumatic stress;
  • society's denial of psychic trauma;
  • consequences to health;
  • central concepts;
  • central models


This chapter contains sections titled:

  • Introduction: The Individual as a Citizen

  • Society's Denial of Psychic Trauma and its Consequences to Health

  • Central Concepts and Models

    • Disasters: Incidents and Types

    • Communication Disasters

    • Confrontational Support

    • Myths

    • Disaster Stressors

    • Time Phase and Geographical Zone Models

    • Individual Versus Collective Trauma

    • Four Types of Danger

    • Shock Trauma

    • Longlasting Danger and Threat

    • Silent Trauma

    • Disaster Behavior

    • Collective Stress: Causal Mechanisms Psychopathology

    • Psychological Epidemics

    • Toxic Disasters

  • References